Unipolar and bipolar disorders are fairly common and they can have devastating effects to an individual. There has been much study and documentation on these disorders. This paper will review the causes of both unipolar and bipolar disorders. The symptoms of both of these disorders will be highlighted and discussed. Treatment options will be reviewed that are available to individuals who find that they are suffering from these disorders.
Unipolar disorder is characterized by an individual feeling only depression without the mood swing of extreme happiness. There are many theories about what can cause unipolar disorder. Genetics may play a key role. If a person comes from a family where depression occurs, that family should have a higher rate. “Researchers have in fact found that as many as 20 percent of those relatives are depressed, compared with fewer than 10 percent of the general population” (Chapter 7, 2009). The chemical makeup in an individual’s brain may be a factor. Psychodynamic theories suggest that loss is the key role. People lose a loved one or have their life expectations go unfulfilled and they spiral toward depression. Behaviorists believe that the decreasing rewards a person has in their life leads to unipolar disorder. Cognitive theories indicate that depression is caused mainly by negative thinking.
Bipolar disorder is characterized by extreme highs of happiness and extreme lows of depression. As with unipolar disorder there is evidence that bipolar disorder may have a genetic link, although this is not the only theory for the cause of this disorder. The popular ion theory suggests that ions in the brain either travel too easily or are too stubborn which results in mania and depression respectively (Chapter7, 2009). There Causes and 3
have been studies that found abnormal brain chemistry functions in people that are afflicted with bipolar disorder.
Depression has many symptoms. People afflicted by depression have poor...