An Exploratory Study on Bipolar Disorder
Bipolar disorder is a condition that causes psychological and physical problems bad enough to affect everyday life - sometimes seriously. This disorder is also said to be one of the oldest disorders. According to the DSM-IV-TR, Bipolar Disorder, also known as Manic Depression or Bipolar Affect Disorder, is an extreme condition in which a person constantly changing moods, from a very good mood to a depressive state. A person diagnosed with this disorder can easily be described as a person riding a slow motion roller coaster; patients may spend weeks feeling so good, or “at the top of the world” and then plunge in to depressive states. This disorder affects one’s mood, emotions and behavior. As earlier stated, a person with this disorder experiences shifts in mood episodes. According to Hoeksema (2011), the patient may experience Mania or Hypomania to Depression. During Depressive episodes, the patient is despairing and fearful, they doubt themselves and everyone around them, they also contemplate on suicide. Symptoms include sadness, anxiety loss of energy, hopelessness and have difficulty concentrating. They also suddenly lose interest in things that were pleasurable to them before. During the manic episodes, the patient has tremendous energy and vibrancy and filled with ideas and confidence. This results to inflated self-esteem, agitation, being too talkative, can easily be distracted, has series of racing thoughts. The duration of the mood episodes typically lasts from a couple of hours to months. More rarely, people switch from mania to depression and back in a matter of days (Hoeksema, 2012). Between the shifts of moods, patients can actually go back to their daily functioning. Some people with the disorder can enjoy healthy, stable mood for many years between episodes, while others rapidly go in and out of mood episodes almost continually, while still others experience mood episodes at frequencies between these two extremes. A. Statement of the Purpose
This paper aims to have a deeper understanding on what Bipolar disorders is, its causes, symptoms, treatments and most importantly the different forms of Bipolar Disorder. This paper is beneficial to people who are suffering this disorder. It will orient them and help them understand how and why they behave in a certain kind of way. This paper will also benefit the people who know other people diagnosed with this disorder. It will help them understand and be fully equipped with the knowledge on how to handle and how to help a person with this type of personality disorder. B. Methodology in Gathering Data
The researcher used the College of Arts (CAS) library in San Beda College Alabang (SBCA) to look for references to use in the further understanding of the topic. Books dating from 2008 up to 2012 were gathered and used for data collection.
A. Causes of Bipolar Disorder
As earlier stated, this disorder affects thoughts, feelings, perceptions and behavior and even how a person feels and behaves physically. Although the exact cause is still unknown, it is stated that it occurs more often to relatives of people with personality disorder. The onset of this disorder is between ages 15-25. A leading theory is that brain chemicals alter abnormally. According to Kring, Johnson, Davison and Neale (2010), genetic studies proved bipolar Disorder to be hereditary. Neurobiological research on the other hand, focused on the sensitivity of the receptors, namely the serotonin and dopamine receptors. Elevated activity of the amygdale and diminished activity in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and anterior cingulated is tied up with Bipolar Disorder. Socioenvironmental models focuses in the negative life events, lack of social support and family criticisms as triggers of the moods of the patients. B. Types of Bipolar Disorder
* Bipolar I
Bipolar I Disorder was formerly known as...
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