Case Study Hemophilia, Childhood Obesity

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Introduction
Hemophilia A

Hemophilia is a heritable genetic disorder, and is a recessive sex-linked trait carried on the X chromosome. Thus hemophilia is more common in males (XY) than in females (XX) since males only need one copy of the faulty gene to show the trait. In actuality, female carriers of the defective gene are almost exclusively asymptomatic carriers. Regardless, it is still a rare disease amongst boys. In this current time of advanced technology in medicine, hemophilia can be divided into three different forms (A,B,C) based on the deficiency of a particular blood clotting protein. The most common version of the rare genetic disease is Hemophilia A. 1 in every 5,000-10,000 boys represents approximately 80% of hemophilia cases in which there is a deficiency in clotting Factor VIII (Hemophilia KidsHealth). Due to the hemophiliac's faulty coagulant factors, the disorder results in problems regarding blood coagulation (or blood clotting) for the individual with the defective gene. Therefore, the individual male diagnosed with hemophilia suffers from some or all of the following symptoms: excessive bleeding episodes known as 'bleeds', bruising easily, re-bleeding scabs, chronic anemia due to multiple episodes of excessive blood loss, and in some occasions hematuria.

Childhood Obesity

Obesity, in general, is a growing health concern in developed countries. Just like with adults, childhood obesity is diagnosed by a health care practitioner, usually a pediatrician, based on the child's body mass index. BMI is a calculated value which represents human body fat based on an person's height and body weight. However, childhood obesity is categorized a bit differently than adult obesity. The reason for this is because children are still growing as they age, especially during puberty. Therefore, BMI growth charts for children and teens are both age and sex sensitive, justified by the differences in body fat between sexes and among different age groups of children. When it comes to children, overweight and obesity labels are medically diagnosed to a child based on their BMI percentile, as well as by a calculated BMI value. According to the growth charts, a BMI greater than the 85th percentile but less than the 95th percentile is considered overweight, and a BMI of greater than or equal to the 95th percentile is considered obese (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). Childhood obesity can lead to both short-term as well as long-term physical, social, and psychological problems. Physical health effects include higher risk for cardiovascular disease, higher risk for diabetes, and higher risk for bone and joint related problems. Obesity also can make it more difficult for a child to fit in peer social groups which can result in low self-esteem and possible depression. Being overweight and having hemophilia are particularly risky, since the extra weight can cause stress to the joints and lead to bleeding within a joint.

Depression

Depression amongst children can sometimes be difficult to diagnose especially when a child is going through puberty. It is normal for kids to be sad from time to time, especially after such events as moving from one town to another, a pet dying, or feeling sad over not achieving a particular goal they had planned. However, certain signs can help diagnose a child as being clinically depressed such as the child no longer enjoys their favorite things or activities. In some occasions, children may take part in more risky and dangerous behavior which can cause harm to them and others. A child may also lose or gain significant weight due to change in eating habits. Depression can hamper a child socially and academically because the child may have trouble concentrating or making decisions due to lack of care or motivation. Children with rare diseases that inhibit them from partaking in activities in which average healthy children partake can lead a child to having...
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