It is important when working with clients that consideration is given to the methods and approaches used with regards to specific client’s needs and personality as well as consideration regarding presenting issues. Here a case study of Jane is used to argue /evaluate and assess how both a psychodynamic counselor and cognitive behavioral therapist (CBT) would view the case study of Jane from their perspectives. Consideration will be given from both a psychodynamic approach and CBT approach of how a therapist might work with Jane. The main similarities and differences of both the psychodynamic and CBT approaches will be analyzed. This will lead into an evaluation of which is the most appropriate approach in working with Jane by comparing and contrasting these two approaches. Therefore, an explanation of why this is considered the best approach is necessary. Hence, a brief overview of Jane’s case is attached (see Appendix 1). Psychodynamic perspective
The psychodynamic approach developed from Freud’s traditional psychoanalysis, but does not adhere strictly to Freudian tenets, but incorporates some original concepts (Shedler, 2010). Psychodynamic theorists believe personality and behavior are determined as a result of the conflict of primarily unconscious forces (Corey, 2005). The psychodynamic approach will be explored in terms of how a therapist might work with Jane. Jane’s clinical diagnosis would be depression and anxiety as well as dynamic issues including her family of origin (Myers, 2005). Jane’s experiences, emotions and desires have been repressed into her unconscious. There are also possible conflicts with her id, ego and superego (Weiten, Dunn, & Hammer, 2009). For example: “I just want to get on with my life, and meet people, but find it extremely difficult”. Here Jane’s Id is not motivated to get out and meet new people. It is easier to stay home. Jane’s ego is saying “I am really having a hard time trying to figure out what to do” (McLeod, 2009). Jane’s ego desires finding a rational conclusion and may be a sign that the reality principle is a play. Jane’s superego is saying “I just get so nervous when I leave the house” (McLeod, 2009). This is irrational and seeks perfection. The superego is causing her anxiety impacting her ability to sort through her own values; hence a counsellor would support Jane to do this (McLeod, 2009). It is possible that Jane experienced trauma in her earlier life and this could be interpreted by Freud’s stages of psychosexual development (Myers, 2005). Freud believes such origins shapes personality in early childhood (Myers, 2005). Jane’s psychological disorders according to psychodynamic perspective are the result of a fixation at any one of the stages, therefore affecting her adult personality now (Myers, 2005). In psychodynamic terms Jane’s anxiety is because of conflict between instinctual drives and social factors that have been repressed and these neuroses later developing into agoraphobia (Myers, 2005). A counsellor may work with Jane to help her address her intra-psychic conflicts to find new ways to cope with her anxiety by using techniques such as free association, transference, and dream analysis (Summers & Barber, 2010). According to Freud, defense mechanisms suppress this internal conflict to protect against anxiety (Corey, 2005). For example: Jane uses intellectualization/isolation that involves cutting of emotionally from hurtful situations protecting her from painful emotions by distorting reality (Weiten et al., 2009). The key here is to make the unconscious conscious, therefore strengthening the ego so Jane manages her internal conflicts more effectively and rationally (Weiten et al., 2009). Since Jane has unfulfilled needs from the past and these may be transferred onto the counselor during analysis, hence it is importance to explore Jane’s ‘family of origin’ (Leiper & Maltby, 2004). This would be explored in the ‘here and...
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