Sai Yi Pan, Anne-Marie Ugnat, Yang Mao, et al.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2004;13:1521-1527. Published online September 1, 2004.
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Copyright © 2004 American Association for Cancer Research
Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
A Case-Control Study of Diet and the Risk of Ovarian Cancer
Sai Yi Pan,1 Anne-Marie Ugnat,1 Yang Mao,1 Shi Wu Wen,2,3 Kenneth C. Johnson,1 and The Canadian Cancer Registries Epidemiology Research Group1
Surveillance and Risk Assessment Division, Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Control, Population and Public Health Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; 2OMNI Research Group, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; and 3Clinical Epidemiology Program, Ottawa Health Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
Epidemiologic studies have suggested that some dietary factors may play a role in the etiology of ovarian cancer, but the findings have been inconsistent. We
assessed the association of ovarian cancer with dietary
factors in a population-based case-control study in
Canada. Diet information was collected on 442 incident
cases of ovarian cancer diagnosed in 1994 to 1997 and
2,135 population controls via a self-administered questionnaire. Compared with women in the lowest quartile of cholesterol intake, those in the second, third, and
fourth quartiles had a multivariate adjusted odds ratio
[OR; 95% confidence interval (95% CI)] of 1.12 (0.81 –
1.56), 1.20 (0.85 – 1.68), and 1.42 (1.03 – 1.97), respectively (P for trend = 0.031). Higher egg consumption was also
associated with a nonsignificant increase in ovarian
cancer risk. The ORs (95% CIs) for ovarian cancer were
0.77 (0.60 – 1.04) and 0.76 (0.56 – 0.99) among women in the highest quartile of total vegetable and cruciferous
vegetable intake as compared with women in the
lowest quartile. Women who took supplements of
vitamin E, B-carotene, and B-complex vitamins for
z10 years had ORs (95% CIs) of 0.49 (0.30 – 0.81), 0.31
(0.11 – 0.91), and 0.61 (0.36 – 1.05), respectively. However, we did not observe an association of ovarian cancer risk
with dietary fat intake, including saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids, protein, carbohydrate, dietary fiber, fruit, dairy products, meat
products, fish, chicken, grain products, nut products,
baked desserts, margarine, butter, mayonnaise, and
supplement of multiple vitamins, vitamin A, vitamin C,
calcium, iron, zinc, and selenium. Our findings
suggested that ovarian cancer risk was positively
associated with higher consumption of dietary cholesterol and eggs and inversely associated with higher intake of total vegetables and cruciferous vegetables
and supplementation of vitamin E, B-carotene, and Bcomplex vitamins. (Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2004;13(9):1521 – 7)
Ecological studies found that international rates of
ovarian cancer incidence and mortality differed...