Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in men in the United States. It disproportionately affects African American men when compared to other ethnic groups. African American men are two to three times more likely to die of prostate cancer than white men. The reasons for the disparity remain unclear, but several factors may be involved, such as age, race, nationality, nutrition, exercise, and family history of cancer. Detection of prostate cancer in high-risk African Americans is important but continues to be controversial. (Jones, Underwood and Rivers, 2007). Nurses play a vital role in the health care and education of patients; therefore, they must be aware of the issues. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), in 2008, black men were more likely to die of prostate cancer than any other group. White men had the second highest rate of deaths from prostate cancer, followed by men who are Hispanic, American Indian/Alaska Native, and Asian/Pacific Islander (Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 2012). My health promotion plan reviews the current issues and challenges regarding prostate cancer in African American men and provides African American men with up-to-date knowledge on the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of prostate cancer. Improving Prostate Cancer Awareness in Orange County African-American Men I.
Health seeking behavior: prostate cancer screening among African-American men ages 40 and older related to the fact that African American men are 50% more likely to develop prostate cancer than any other racial or ethnic group (Maurer & Smith, 2005, p. 443) and risk factors: family history of prostate cancer, a diet high in fat, and non-participation in screenings as evidenced by a total prostate cancer mortality rate of 88 deaths per 100,000 population in 2008-2010 and an incidence of 577 per 100,000 population in 2006-2008 in Orange County, Florida; and Healthy People 2020 C-7 reduce the prostate cancer death rate: Baseline: 23.5 prostate cancer deaths per 100,000 males and Target: 21.2 deaths per 100,000 population; and Healthy People 2020 C-19 (Developmental) Increase the proportion of men who have discussed with their health care provider whether or not to have a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test to screen for prostate cancer. (Florida Charts, 2010; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2011). II.
Review of Literature
Aside from non-melanoma skin cancer, prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men in the United States. Prostate Cancer is also one of the leading causes of cancer death among men of all races and Hispanic origin populations (Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 2012). In 2008, 214,633 men in the United States were diagnosed with prostate cancer. 28,471 men in the United States died from prostate cancer. (Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 2012). According to the Florida Cancer Data System (FCDS), Florida’s statewide, population-based central cancer registry, prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer in Florida, exceeded only by cancer of the lung and bronchus. In 2006, Florida’s prostate cancer incidence rate was 128.8 per 100,000 males and the mortality rate was 18.9 per 100,000 males. Both incidence and mortality rates were higher among those in older age groups and among blacks (Babu, 2010). Of all the Florida prostate cancer cases, 82.3% were diagnosed at an early stage in 2006. The percentage of cases diagnosed at an advanced stage was higher among blacks (11.8%) compared to their white counterparts (9.7%) (Babu, 2010). Early detection will play a critical role in the downward shift of prostate cancer mortality. Why is this diagnosis a health problem for this target group? The greatest risk factor for prostate cancer is age. This risk increases after the age of 50 in white men who have no family history of the disease and after the...
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