Hanging at a Constant
Determining the effect mass has on acceleration

Block 5
11/25/12

Purpose:
The purpose of this lab is to determine the effect of additional mass added to a cart’s existing mass, without changing the applied force, on the acceleration of the cart. We will test this effect by hanging a constant mass to a cart and use a computer program, LoggerPro, to calculate the acceleration which is expressed through the slope of the graph. The cart’s initial mass is 500 grams which we change by adding more weights in order to see a difference in acceleration. Some basic background information needed for this experiment is first, and foremost, Newton’s Second Law of Motion stating: The acceleration (a) of a body is parallel and directly proportional to the net force (F) acting on the body, is in the direction of the net force, and is inversely proportional to the mass (m) of the body, i.e., F = ma. We must also know that weight is a force, we use the weight of the cart and the hanging weight as the forces needed to determine acceleration. The bigger the mass the more force required to create the same amount of acceleration. We have to assume that the length of the track the cart traveled was long enough to accurately calculate the acceleration.

Hypothesis:
If the mass of the cart increases while keeping the hanging mass (applied force) constant then the acceleration of the cart will decrease because more applied force is needed to pull a heavier mass (cart). This will occur in order to follow Newton’s Second Law of Motion and the equation F=ma.

Materials:
-weights
-a cart
-motion sensor
- LoggerPro program

Procedure:

1. Chose a constant hanging mass/applied force (200g)
2. Attach the hanging mass to the initial cart (without additional weights) 3. Set up Logger Pro and motion sensor
4. Press start and when it beeps let the cart go
5. Stop cart near the end so...

...WRITING RESEARCH REPORTS
The following set of guidelines provides psychology students at Essex with the basic information
for structuring and formatting reports of research in psychology. During your time here this will be
an invaluable reference. You are encouraged to refer to this document each time you write a labreport.
The writing of laboratory reports is an essential part of any practical module in Psychology. This is
because psychologists (and more generally most scientists) write accounts of their studies using a
standard format, which makes explicit certain aspects of the study. There are two main reasons for
doing this:
(1) Ease of communication: it is easier to find what you want from a study if it
is written in the standard format.
(2) Provision of a precise and complete description: the format makes it clear what
information is important for scientific communication. This information must be provided
in detail. It should be added that many professions now include the skills of technical report
writing, which requires clear, direct and concise
expression, the ability to summarize and present data, and the ability to form
hypotheses and draw valid inferences. Learning to write laboratory reports will provide you
with a valuable and transferable skill.
This guide tells you about the structure and style that is required for a psychology laboratory...

...Tori Suchy
Physical Science Honors
1st block
October 4, 2012
Balloon Powered Car
Problem: In order to create a race car that can travel a minimum of eight meters powered by a nine inch balloon. We need incorporate Newton's Law of Motion including speed, velocity, and acceleration.
Hypothesis: If a car were to be made out of homemade materials, then it would be possible for it to travel 8 meters powered by a nine inch balloon.
Independent Variable: building the car from homemade materials.
Dependent Variable: The results of speed and distance from the car responding to the materials
Rationale: In this experiment, the challenge is to build a balloon powered car from homemade materials that can travel at least 8 meters. According to Newton’s Third law, it is possible to accomplish this objective. Force is any push or pulls and can be measured in newtons. The first law states that an object at rest will remain at rest unless acted upon by an opposing force. It also says that if an object is in motion will stay in motion unless acted upon by an unbalanced force. Also, during research it was found that Newton's 2nd law states that an object's acceleration depends on the mass of the object and the force acted upon it. This law is expressed in the equation, F (force) = M (mass)*A (acceleration). The third law explains that when an object exerts force on another object that object exerts force back. The objects would equal each other in magnitude but go the...

...Table of Contents
Abstract……………………………………………………………………………………………2
Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………..2
Background………………………………………………………………………………..2
Objectives…………………………………………………………………………………2
Scope………………………………………………………………………………………3
Theory review……………………………………………………………………………………..3
Design of report…………………………………………………………………………………...5
Procedures…………………………………………………………………………………………5
Results……………………………………………………………………………………………..6
Discussion…………………………………………………………………………………………6
Conclusion………………………………………………………………………………………...7
Reference……………………………………………………………………………………….....7
Appendix…………………………………………………………………………………………..7
ABSTRACT
This experiment introduces the use of dimensionless analysis and conventionally analytical method to survey the performance of centrifugal pump. The end of this experiment points out the benefit of using the “new” method to the conventional in most practical problem, especially in the survey of turbo-machine. Also, through this experiment, students know some basic indexes to assess the efficiency of pumps used. We will that for the specific fan conducting this experiment, the best efficiency point occurs at CQ = 0.2, the specific speed NS ~1.23.
INTRODUCTION
Background
A fan is a turbo-machine in which work is done to increase the total pressure of the fluid leaving the device. This is achieved by a rotor or impeller, which is driven by an external source of power to move a row of blades so as to...

...Daphny Maldonado
Bio Lab 2107
Kiah Britton
W 10-12:30
Is H20 Bad for You?
Abstract:
In the village of Gopher Hollow there’s a cluster of Blue Baby Syndrome. There were
four infants affected by this cluster. The families from the infants would collect their
water from wells. We have to determine what’s the source of the high levels of nitrites in
the water. The four sources that could be the point of contamination are a new
subdivision, textile plant, an organic farm, and a mountain lake. We had to ﬁnd the
concentration of each known standard and unknown standard. We did this by using a
spectrophotometer. The results were the following, the organic farm with a herd of 50
cows and a 10 acre ﬁeld of zucchini had the highest levels of nitrites.
Introduction:
Blue Baby Syndrome is a condition that affects many infants. This condition makes
the baby’s skin turn blue because of the lack of oxygen. This condition can exhibit
lethargy, vomiting and not being able to breathe. It can even lead to death in rare cases.
This condition is caused by the excess amount of nitrate that is then converted into
nitrite by the digestive system. The hemoglobin then reacts with the nitrites to form
Methemoglobin. Methemoglobin is not a problem in adults since they have an enzyme
that converts methemoglobin back to hemoglobin. Infants don’t have many of the
enzyme to convert methemoglobin to hemoglobin, resulting in Blue Baby Syndrome. For
example in Gopher...

...Objective: the purpose of this lab is to investigate the law of conservation of energy. This can be achieved by measuring both potential and kinetic energy through the experiment conducted.
Back ground:
Kinetic energy is said to be the energy of motion. Kinetic energy can be defined through this equation:
KE=12mv2 (equation 1)
Where m is the mass of the object in motion, and v is the velocity of the moving object.
Potential energy is the energy associated with the forces that depend on the position of the object. However, there are specific types of potential energy and in this lab we will consider gravitational potential energy. Gravitational potential energy is the energy possessed by the objected due to earth's gravity. This can be specifically defined by the equation:
PEgrav=mgy (equation 2)
Where m is the mass of the object, g is the acceleration due to gravity and y is the height of the object.
With these energies defined, total energy of the system is the sum of its kinetic energy and potential energy at any point in time.
Total energy= kinetic energy+ potential energy=constant
Therefore the law of conservation of energy is defined as: the total energy is neither increased nor decreased in any process. Energy can be transformed from one to another, and transferred from one object to another, but the total amount remained constant, therefore conserve.
Procedure:
the procedure of this lab involves...

...INTRODUCTION
In hydroelectric power plant, turbine been used to generate power from reservoir of water. Turbine been selected by their characteristic curves based on the potential energy available in the water and the amount of power to be generated. Turbine is a type that develops torque by reacting to the pressure or weight of a fluid. The operation of reaction turbine can be describes by the Newton’s third law of motion that is for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction. In this experiment, the main objectives are to study the characteristic curves of a reaction turbine.
Reaction turbine can be defined as a turbine with blades arranged to develop torque form gradual decrease of steam pressure from inlet to exhaust. When the velocity of a fluid is changed, the reaction forces are exerted like a simple nozzle when the fluid accelerated due to the changes in the cross sectional area. The kinetic energy of the fluid increases and since energy is conserved, the pressure of the fluid drops. This is meant that the pressure behind the fluid forces it through the nozzle causing it to speed up. The accelerated fluid in the direction of acceleration is required by force. Every force has an equal and opposite reaction so an equal and opposite force is exerted on the nozzle. There are three types of reaction turbine, in this experiment the radial flow reaction turbine been use. The radial flow reaction turbine has the liquid mainly in a plane perpendicular to the...

...INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS:
This experiment circles around with the Newton’s second condition of equilibrium in rotational motion. It describes by net torque acting on a body which is zero. The ability of the body to rotate in a certain direction is varied according on how much torque is applied. To prove that, a beam that is subjected to two forces is balanced by adjusting the perpendicular distances. When applied force is weight, modification in masses added is also done. Once equilibrium is achieved, or when the beam is not moving at a horizontal position, we can calculate for the unknown forces applied through the utilization of this principle.
We balance the system given the ample forces acting on it. In general, application of Newton’s Second Condition of Equilibrium is applied here. By applying it, we could get the magnitude of one force acting on it, considering the other forces of known magnitudes. Thus, if weight is one of the forces, we could really get the mass of that specific object.
In the first part of the experiment, the first mass pan has 10 g weights on it while for the second, 5 g. By balancing, we measured a distance of 10 cm and 14 cm for each corresponding weight pans, P1 and P2. The weights added to pan 1 and pan2 affect the positions in the model balance if one contained a bigger mass compare to the other. Because they are not equal it will undergo to unstable state and also according to the definition of torque, applied forces multiplied by...

...
NEWTON’S SECOND LAW OF MOTION
Abstract
This study’s objectives are first to verify the direct proportionality of acceleration and net force if the mass of the body is constant and then to verify the inverse proportionality of acceleration and mass if the net force is constant. With the use of, mainly, the dynamics cart and the weight hanger, certain variables such as the mass on the cart and the mass on the hanger which is the net force were manipulated, controlled or changed in order to illustrate Newton’s second law of motion. However, through the process, some sources of error were expected that makes the results not a hundred percent accurate.
According Newton's second law of motion, the behaviors of objects for which all existing forces are not balanced. The second law then states that the acceleration of an object is dependent upon two variables which are the net force acting upon the object and the mass of the object. By the moment that the forces become unbalanced, acceleration then exists. The acceleration of an object depends directly upon the net force acting upon the object, and inversely upon the mass of the object. Therefore as the force acting upon an object is increased, the acceleration of the object is increased and so as the mass of an object is increased, the acceleration of the object is decreased.
Key Words: acceleration, net force, mass, Newton’s second law of motion
Introduction
In order to formally state...