Cari's Story

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A.)How could an infection in Cari’s nasal passages and pharynx spread into her sinuses? -Since Cari is a smoker, cigarette smoke has paralyzed her cilia and stimulated the goblet cells lining her respiratory passages to secrete excess amounts of mucus. Ducts from the sinuses open into the internal nose providing a passageway for microorganisms to travel into the sinuses. B.)What is the couch reflex? Describe the process that Cari’s respiratory system is using to clear her lungs by couching. - A long drawn and deep inhalation followed by a complete closure of the glottis, which results in a strong exhalation that suddenly pushes the glottis open and sends a blast of air through the upper respiratory passages. Stimulus for this reflex act may be a foreign body lodged in the larynx, trachea, or epiglottis. C.)Which structures found in the bronchioles and alveoli normally would protect Cari’s lungs from infectious pathogens and particulate matter? -The wandering phagocytes that remove fine dust particles and other debris from the alveolar spaces. Macrophages and Neutrophils had been continually drawn to the lungs to combat the damaging effects of the smoke but had instead become trapped in the thick mucus secretions. D.)How would the resistance of Cari’s airway be affected by excess mucus and fluid in her lungs? - Larger diameter airways have decreased resistance, allowing greater flow of air. When the diameter of your airway has increased resistance, (due to mucus and fluid) it allows for less air flow and harder work on your body. E.)How would Cari’s lung compliance (the effort required to expand the lungs) be altered as her alveoli fill with fluid due to pneumonia? - Decreased lung compliance is common in emphysema due to the destruction of elastic fibers in alveolar walls. Due to Cari’s 20 year smoking habit she has developed emphysema and this could be causing her decreased lung compliance. F.)How would fluid in Cari’s lungs affect her total lung...
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