Cardiovascular Risk and Its Association with Hyperlipidemia, Diabetes Mellitus and Smoking in Singapore

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Cardiovascular Risk and Its Association with Hyperlipidemia, Diabetes Mellitus and Smoking in Singapore

P K Lim¹, T S S Shirley¹, H Y Shi¹, L K Lau¹
¹School of Health Sciences (Nursing), Ngee Ann Polytechnic, Singapore

Abstract

Objective: To find out the prevalence of hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus and smoking as well as to increase the awareness of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) among residents in Singapore. Design: Cross sectional study, quantitative study, convenience sampling. Setting: Merpati Road, Macpherson, Singapore.

Participants: Two hundred and ninety two individuals aged 18 and above. Measurements: Blood pressure using Dinamap Automatic Blood Pressure Recorder, height and waist circumference using measuring tape, weight using weighing machine Results: Among 289 participants (115 male, 174 female), there were 1/4 of participants are at risk of developing cardiovascular diseases (CVD). People with hyperlipidemia (67%) have higher risk of getting cardiovascular diseases (CVD) compared to people who do not have hyperlipidemia (P=0.001). People with diabetes mellitus (53%) have higher risk of getting cardiovascular diseases (CVD) than the people without DM (P=0.042). Smokers and former smokers (63%) also have higher risk of getting heart problems than non-smokers (P=0.026). Conclusion: People with hyperlipidemia have the highest risk of getting cardiovascular diseases (CVD) when compared to people who have diabetes mellitus (DM) and people who smoke.

Introduction

World Health Organization (2010) announced that cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the world’s largest killers and this disease claims as many as 17.1 million lives a year. According to the statistic from Singapore Heart Foundation (2008), 1 out of 3 deaths in Singapore is due to heart disease or stroke. Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are also the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in many countries and will be estimated as the single largest cause of disease burden globally by the year 2020 (Lee, et al, 2008). Besides, the major causes of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are tobacco use, physical inactivity and eating unhealthy food such as oily food or food in high cholesterol.

High cholesterol level is one of the major contributors of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Hyperlipidemia causes atherosclerosis and it increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) (MOH, 2007). Hyperlipidemia can actually cause progressive atherosclerosis which is plaque formation in arterial wall. It subsequently leads to insufficient blood flow to the heart and causes cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a health condition in a person with an uncontrolled high sugar level in the blood. Ministry of Health, (2006) found that diabetes mellitus associated with 3-fold increased risk in mortality and most of the cases of DM are related to cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Smoking is another significant cardiovascular risk factor in the entire world’s population (Heffernan et al., 2010). Smoking can lower exercise capacity and damage the endothelial function (a thin layer that lines the heart and blood vessels) and increase the rate of developing cardiovascular diseases (CVD).

Since, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus (DM) and smoking cause high risk and high mortality rate of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), the objective of doing this research is to find out the prevalence of hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus and smoking as well as to increase the awareness of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) among residents in Singapore.

This study …….. (how does it relevant to nursing??)

Literature Review

Hyperlipidemia
Hughes K. et al (1990) found that hyperlipidemia always associated with hypertension and diabetes mellitus and it will increase the rate of getting cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Besides, Lee. et al (2008) showed that with the presence of diabetes, smoking significantly contributed to mortality while elevated total cholesterol level...
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