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Introduction (all): Psychologists have long been interested in the topics of buying and shopping behaviour. Some major perspectives in psychology such as behaviourism and cognitivism have formulated different theories to explain buying motivation and behaviour. The behaviourists stress the process of operant conditioning and individual’s history of reinforcement, while the cognitive approach puts its accent on individual’s free will and intentional, voluntary action. The views of these two perspectives can be examined in terms of the nature of buying behaviour and the process of choice.
Para. 2 With regard to the nature of buying behaviour, the behaviourists consider it as a response to a reinforcer. One of the famous behaviourist, Alhadeff (1982) represents buying behaviour as the outcome of the relative strengths of conflicting approach and escape behaviours, each of which is determined by its own reinforcers. Etc. On the other hand, the cognitive perspective views buying behaviour as more voluntary, rational and intentional in nature rather than mere response to the environment. People buy what they want to buy and their reasons for buying embrace "whatever consideration induced, inclined, weighed with or decided them to buy" (Beck, 1975). Etc.
Para. 3: Based on their different conception about the nature of buying behaviour, the behaviourist and the cognitive theorists have different views on the process of choice when buying. The behaviourists propose that consumer choice begins with an external stimulus such as an advertising message or word-of-mouth communication. Etc. However, the cognitive psychologists adopt a different approach to explain the process of choice. They consider the choice of buying as a rule-following behaviour Etc.
Para. 4 (all): To the behaviourists, therefore, choice of buying is simply a behaviour, the only way of acting...