Bulgarian Migration Report

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Bulgarian Migration: Incentives and Constellations

Svetla Kostadinova Martin Dimitrov George Angelov Stefan Cankov (in Belgium) Dimitar Chobanov Katya Dimitrova (in Germany) Galina Karamalakova (in Italy) Dr. Eugenia Markova (in UK, University of Sussex) Dr. Krassen Stanchev (editor)

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© 2005 Open Society Institute – Sofia. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means without permission in writing from the Open Society Institute – Sofia. Please direct inquiries to: Open Society Institute – Sofia Solunska Str. 56 1000 Sofia, Bulgaria www.osf.bg

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Contents:

1) Introduction - page 4 2) Methodology – page 5 3) Chapter 1 Bulgarian Migrants: Statistical and Demographic Profile – page 7 a. Bulgarian Emigrants in Greece b. Bulgarian Emigrants in Spain 4) Chapter 2 Macroeconomic Comparisons and Provisional Impacts of Macroeconomic Developments – page 40 5) Chapter 3 Benefits for the Home Country: Remittances, Their Impacts and Uses – page 48 6) Chapter 4 Overall EU Migration Constellations – page 62 a. b. c. d. EU Policies on Labor Migration The Case of Italy The Case of Germany Irish Migration Policy and other practices from EU member states for management of Economic Migration

7) Conclusions – page 86 8) Attachments – page 91 a. Migrants’ “Business Environment” in Major Emigration Destinations: Greece, Spain, Italy and Germany b. Policy – assessment Toolkit c. Demographic Data for Bulgaria

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Acknowledgements The research team has been honored to work with the following representatives of Bulgarian government agencies: Mrs. Galina Aleksandrova, Employment agency, Directorate Pre-accession Funds and International Activities, Mrs. Stefka Blazheva, Head of Migration Statistics Sector, Population Statistics Department, National Statistical Institute, Mrs. Snejanka Georgieva, Director, General Directorate, "Civic Registration and Administrative Service". They helped us collect information, devoted their time and morally supported our research efforts for a period of four months. Mr. Stefan Stoyanov, Bulgarian ambassador to Greece and Yany Milackov – Ambassador to Serbia and Montenegro helped us elaborate research hypotheses and the public servants in the Bulgarian Consulates and Embassies in Germany, Italy and Spain assisted us when we needed additional information and feedback. We owe a special acknowledgement to Dr. Evgenia Markova from the University of Sussex. She helped us develop the research methodology and her suggestions on how to reflect emigration from the key destination countries resulted as a major part of this report. Also, her field work results in Greece and Spain, updated in 2003 and 2004, gave us the opportunity to draw an abstract profile of a Bulgarian Emigrant. Doctors Vesselin Vukotic (from the University of Podgorica, Monte Negro), Vesselin Minchev (from the Institute of Economics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences), Genc Ruli (from the University of Tirana and the Center for Strategic Studies in Albania) and Friedrich Bauersax (from the University of Bonn and IME International Advisory Board) shared with us their previous surveys and related materials, and gave us valuable comments and advice. Introduction This report presents the findings of a research conducted by researchers from the Institute for Market Economics, Sofia, in the period February 2004 – October 2004 upon commission by the Open Society Institute - Sofia. The main purpose of the study was identification of current migration trends observed in Bulgaria and analysis of the incentives and impact that motivate migration and migration-related policies. These incentives and impacts are analytically isolated to different constellations: incentives are reflected as they emerge (or exist) in international context while impacts are evaluated as those that appear in the local society and societal situation in Bulgaria. The original idea was to launch a multi-country...
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