Boyles Law Apparatus

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Abstract
The objective of this lab was to determine the relationship (if any), between the pressure and volume of a gas given the temperature and # of molecules remained constant. Using the Boyle's law apparatus, and textbooks to demonstrate pressure it was concluded that there was a relationship between pressure and volume. However, the relationship was not a direct relationship, and it was determined that the pressure and volume of a gas are inversely proportioned. Thus,proving Boyle's theory correct.

Introduction

Objectives: The main objective of this lab was to determine the relationship between the volume and pressure when the temperature and number of molecules remains the same throughout. Other minor objectives of this lab were to determine any possible source of error, so there is more awareness of these errors when conducting another experiment.

Theory: Gases are matter with no definite volume or shape. They will take on the volume and shape of whatever they are being contained in. There are three gas laws. The first is Boyle's Law. Boyle's law states that at a maintained temperature, and number of molecules, the volume and pressure of a gas are inversely proportional to each other. Which simply means that the higher the pressure is on a gas, the lower the volume of the gas will be, and vice-versa. The formula for this law is: P¹V¹=P²V². V¹ is the old volume, and P¹ is the old pressure. V² is the new volume and P² is the old pressure. The second gas law is Charles Law. Charles Law states that there is a direct relationship between volume & temperature(K). As Volume increases, so does Temperature, by the same ratio. The third gas law is the Combined Law. The combined law deals with any combination of Pressure, Volume and temperature. The combined law states that Pressure and Temperature are directly proportioned. P¹V¹ Over T¹ = P²V² Over T².

The Kinetic Theory of Gases states that:
1) A gas is composed of particles that are in continuous random motion.
2) There is a transfer of energy between colliding particles, but no energy is lost.
3) The volume of gas particles is almost non-significant in comparison with the volume of space they are in. There is much space between particles.
4) Gas particles are considered as having no force of attraction for each other.
This Kinetic theory applies to all ideal gases. Real gases however are different because in a real gas, the volume of gas particles is significant, and gas particles do have some volume. (Opposite of law #3.) In a real gas, the gas particles do have a force of attraction. (Opposite of law #4.)

Robert Boyle was born in 1627, at Lismore Castle, Munster, Ireland as the fourteenth child to the Earl of Cork. He was schooled all throughout Europe, and later went on to attend Oxford. Boyle conducted many experiments throughout his time at Oxford. His greatest contribution is his theory which has come to be known as Boyle's Law. This has become the basis for all modern sciences.

Charles law explains how hot-air balloons work. Since a gas will expand when it is heated, the weight of the hot air will occupy a larger volume than cold air of the same weight. This shows that hot air is less denser than the cold air. So, once the air in the balloon gets hot enough, the weight of the balloon plus the hot air will be less than the same volume of cold air, and in turn will make the balloon rise. When the gas in the balloon cools, the balloon will start to lower back down to the ground.

Combined Law just shows how both pressure and volume are directly related to temperature.
Hypotheses: The volume of the air will decrease. Because as increased pressure is applied, the molecules will move closer together causing the volume of the gas to decrease.

Methods
Materials: The materials used in this lab were the Boyle's Law apparatus, and textbooks.

Procedure:
1 – Carefully insert the cylinder...
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