Borrowings: English Language and Word

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Plan
Introduction………………………………………………………………………...….4 Part I.
Lexico-Semantic Characteristics of different types of borrowed elements in English 1.1. the definition of the term "borrowed word"……………………..………………..6 1.2. the semantic features of types of borrowed elements in English…………………9 1.2.1. translation loans.……………………………………………………………….10 1.2.2. semantic loans…………………………………………………………………11 1.2.3. etymological doublets………………………………………………………….12 1.2.3.4. hybrids……………………………………………………………………….15 1.2.3.4.5. international words………………………………………………………...18 1.3. assimilation of borrowings, its types and degrees……………………………….24 Part II.

Textual Characteristics of types of borrowed elements in Modern English…………26 Conclusions…………………………………………………………………………..28 Resume……………………………………………………………………………….29 Bibliography………………………………………………………………………….31 Electronic Sources…………………………………………….……………………...33

Introduction
Etymologically the vocabulary of the English language is far from being homogenous. It consists of two layers - the native stock of words and the borrowed stock of words. Numerically the borrowed stock of words is considerably larger than the native stock of words. The topicality of the investigation is in the fact that native words comprise only 30% of the total number of words in the English vocabulary that is why a borrowing problem is very popular in linguistics and needs to be learnt. The native words form the bulk of the most frequent words actually used in speech and writing. Besides, the native words have a wider range of lexical and grammatical valency, they are highly polysemantic and productive in forming word clusters and set expressions. The most effective way of borrowing is direct borrowing from another language as the result of the contacts with other nations. Though, a word may be also borrowed indirectly not from the source language but through another language.[12] When analyzing borrowed words one should distinguish between two terms - source of borrowing and origin of borrowing. The first term is applied to the language from which the word was immediately borrowed and the second - to the language to which the word may be ultimately traced. The closer the two interacting languages are in structure the easier it is for words of one language to penetrate into the other. [6] The subject matter of this Course Paper is to identify types of borrowed elements in Modern English along with lexico-semantic aspect. There are different approaches to classifying the borrowed stock of words. The borrowed stock of words may be classified according to the nature of the borrowing itself as borrowing proper, loans translation and semantic loans. The novelty of the problem arises from the necessity of a profound scientific investigation of the existing types of borrowed elements in Modern English. The main aim of the Course Paper is to summarize and systematize the lexical and semantic peculiarities of borrowing elements in Modern English. The tendency of the English language to borrow extensively can be traced during the centuries [26]. Thus, one can confidently claim that borrowing is one of the most productive sources of enrichment of the English vocabulary.

Part I: Lexico-Semantic Characteristics of different types of borrowed elements in English. 1.1. The definition of the term “borrowed word”
Borrowed words or loanwords are words taken from another language and modified according to the patterns of the receiving language. In many cases a borrowed word especially one borrowed long ago is practically indistinguishable from a native word without a thorough etymological analysis. The number of the borrowings in the vocabulary of the language and the role played by them is determined by the historical development of the nation speaking the language. A substantial amount of all English words have been borrowed from other languages. These words are usually called...
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