October 8th, 2012
The Haber process is the process by which ammonia (NH3) is produced. The equation for this reaction is...
The symbol shown in the middle means it is a reversible reaction so the product can decompose back into the reactants. Therefore, optimum conditions must be selected to get the greatest yield. When the forward and backward reactions are the same, it is said to be in a state of dynamic equilibrium. The position of this dynamic equilibrium can be moved forward by changing the conditions the reaction is done in. This follows Le Chatelier’s Principle which says changes to a system in equilibrium will move it in an opposite direction. Condition (Dependent Variables)| Effect (Independent Variables)-Yield, Equilibrium Time, Net Profit| Pressure| Increasing this will improve the yield because the forward reaction reduces pressure. However, putting up the pressure too far is impractical and becomes too expensive. | Temperature| A higher yield can be obtained by using a low temperature since the forward reaction produces heat, but this also will make the reaction slower, and less profitable. | Catalyst| The Haber process makes use of catalysts like iron, tungsten, and platinum to speed up the reaction, however this does not improve the yield. | Note: The conditions of the Haber process must be finely balanced to reach a combination of highest yield and fastest reaction, this is very important because getting this right will make sure this industrial process is as profitable as possible. Data Collection and Processing (Raw Data):
Variables| Results (No Catalyst)| Results (No Catalyst)| Results (No Catalyst)| Results (No Catalyst)| Results (No Catalyst)| Temperature (°C)| 658| 660| 663| 677| 680| Pressure (Atm.)| 464| 482| 510| 658| 694| Time to Equilibrate (Min)| 10.16| 10.17| 10. 17| 10.15| 10.15| Yield (%) | 15.8| 16.3| 17.1| 21.2| 22.2| Amount ($) per day| 36,454.36| 36,413. 56 | 36,380.36 | 36, 361.71| 36,321.50|
* After this first trial using no catalysts, it is evident that the equilibrium time is extremely slow and unfortunately, only produces a small yield yet with a large amount of net profit per day. * Another thing was the temperature. The net profit and yield seemed to be at its highest when the temperatures were set at around the 600-700°C range. With an extremely low temperature though, the time to equilibrate was close to a million years, so temperature had to be fairly high * In terms of the pressure, it had to be between the 400-700 Atm. range (not too high so that it would yield a high cost and not too low so that it would yield a low percentage and net profit) but just in the middle * I wanted to find balance in my profit and yield, so with no catalyst, I adjusted the bars so that the temperature value was fairly close to the pressure value and the results were a greater net profit, with a reasonable equilibrium time of reaction
Variables| Results (With Iron Catalyst) | Results (With Iron Catalyst)| Results (With Iron Catalyst)| Results (With Iron Catalyst)| Results (With Iron Catalyst)| Temperature (°C)| 468| 475| 472| 473| 479|
Pressure (Atm.)| 721| 881| 809| 832| 989|
Time to Equilibrate (Min)| 10.18| 10.16| 10.17| 10.16| 10.18| Yield (%) | 58.8| 63.9| 61.7| 62.4| 66.9|
Amount ($) per day| 33, 793.48| 33, 909.39| 33, 805.15| 33,893.81| 33, 753.80|
* After this second trial, I used the catalyst of iron. Iron was by far the most profitable catalyst to use as it was not that expensive as the others (Tungsten and Platinum), and it produced a high yield with a pretty high amount as well * In terms of the...