Blood

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BIO 236 AP II
Chapter 14 Blood

1. Define the following word parts.
agglutin- to glue together                                  leuko-white bil-   bile                                        -osis abnormal condition embol-   stopper                                  -poie make,produce erythr-  red                                     -stasis halt, make stand Hema- or Hemo-blood                                      thromb- clot  

2. What is the function of blood? Transport nutrients,oxygen,wastes,& hormones, helps maintain the stability of the interstitial fluid and distributes heat.  
 
 
 
3. Answer these questions concerning the volume and composition of blood.  
List the solid elements of blood red blood cells, white blood cells & platelets  
 
What is the blood volume of the average-sized (70 kg) male? 10780  
 
What part of blood tissue is the plasma? About 55%
 
 
What is plasma made up of, include the gases, nutrients, and the proteins and their function? Approx. 92% water, amino acids, proteins, carbs, lipids, vitamins, hormones,electrolytes, cellular wastes.

PROTEINS: albumin-help maintain colloid osmotic pressure. Globulin-alpha & beta-transports lipids & fat soluable vitamins, gamma-constitute the antibodies of immunity. Fibrinogen-play a key role in blood coagulation GASES: oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen

ELECTROLYTES: sodium, potassium,calcium,magnesium,chloride, bicarbonate,phosphate&sulfate ions- keep blood stable; maintain the osmotic pressure &pH. NUTRIENTS: simple sugars, amino acids & lipids-glucose stored in liver as glycogen & is released whenever the blood glucose level falls. Amino acids-are used to synthesize proteins & are deaminated for use as energy sources. Lipoproteins transport liids.  

 
 
 
 
 
 

 
Answer these questions concerning red blood cells.
 
4. Describe the shape of a red blood cell and explain how the shape enhances its function. Bioconcave discs, thin near center thicker around rim. Increases surface area for transporting gases.  
 
 

5. Why does a red blood cell lack a nucleus? To make more room for hemoglobin.  
 

 
6. What is the normal red blood cell blood cell count for a man? 4,600,000-6,200,000 cells per microliter

A woman? 4,200,000-5,400,000 cells per microliter
 
 
 
7. What factors provoke a normal increase in red blood cells? Several days of strenuous exercise or an increase in altitude.

 
 
 
8. What dietary factors influence red blood cell production? Availability of B-complex vitamins B12 & folic acid increase RBC production. Iron is required for hemoglobin synthesis.

 
9. Where are red blood cells produced? Initially in the yolk sac, liver & spleen. After birth, from the hematopoietic stem cells in the red bone marrow.

 
 
10. How is the production of red blood cells controlled? Through negative feedback mechanism using the hormone erythropoietin(EPO).

 
 
 
11. How does sickle cell disease affect red blood cell production? The base DNA mutates causing hemoglobin to crystalize in low oxygen environment, the cell then bends & gets stuck & blocks the flow in small blood vessels.  

 
 
 
12. How long does a red blood cell usually live? On average 120 days.  
 
 
13. What are damaged red blood cells destroyed by? The liver and spleen.  
 
 
14. List and describe the types of white blood cells (wbc). Including their functions and the percentage of total wbc they make up. Neutrophils-(54-62%)fight infection;phagocytize bacteria,fungi & some viruses. Eosinophils-(1-3%)moderate allergic reactions & defend against parasitic worm infestation. Basophils-(less than 1%)promotes inflammation & increases blood flow to injured tissues. Monocytes-(3-9%)phagocytize bacteria,dead cells & other debris in the tissues. Lymphocytes-(25-33%)immunity/antibodies.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
15. What is a normal white cell count?...
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