Laboratory Techniques Employed in Blood Analysis

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Full Blood Count is a test used to evaluate the composition and concentration of the cellular components of blood such as red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets, etc. The abnormality it could identify are anaemia which means that there are less red blood cells or less haemoglobin in red blood cells than normal; polycythaemia which means there are too many red blood cells due to various causes; leucopoenia which means there are too few white cells due to various causes; leucocytosis which means there are too many white blood cells; thrombocytopenia which means there are too few platelets and thromnocythaemia which means there are too many platelets due to a disorders which affect cells in bone marrow which make the platelets. Blood Clotting Tests are tests which are used to diagnose and assess bleeding problems and to monitor people who take anticoagulant medicines. The abnormality it could identify are either excessive bleeding or a risk of clotting inside the blood vessels (thrombosis) which are caused by the increase of tendency to coagulation including decreased physical activity, major surgery, oral contraceptive use, hormone replacement therapy, pregnancy and obesity. Blood Chemistry Test is usually performed before and after a surgery to examine the general health of a patient and measures important chemicals produced and needed in the body. Different abnormalities it could identify such as liver diseases which is caused by excessive alcohol consumption that causes enzymes levels to increase; kidney diseases; pancreatic diseases, etc. M3

Several components of the blood can be separated and used in emergency as blood products for transfusion. These separated blood components are called blood products. A. Name four blood products.

Red blood cells
White blood cells
B. Explain how and when three of these blood products could be used in transfusion. Red Blood Cells
Red blood cell transfusion is needed if a person has too few or not enough red blood cells to properly oxygenate the body; therefore red blood cells are obtained from a donor. Red blood cells are recovered from whole blood after donation. These are typed, removed from watery blood plasma and stored. The red blood cells transfusion is then given to a person who has anaemia, whose bone marrow does not make enough red blood cells or to those who have other health conditions that decreases the number of red blood cells.

White Blood Cells
White blood cell transfusion is needed if a person has too little number of white blood cells or if their white blood cells are not functioning normally, those who have life-threatening infections. White blood cell transfusions are rare because it only lasts a few hours in the bloodstream. Donated white blood cells are obtained by heamapheresis and can be stored for up to 24 hours but must be used right away. Most of the time, antibiotics are used in some cases. Platelets

Platelets transfusion is needed if a person has too few platelets, those who have lymphoma, leukaemia, thrombocytopenia or those who are receiving cancer therapy. Platelets transfusion keep the level of the platelet above 10 000 to 20 000 per cubic millimetre. It will help to restore the blood’s clotting ability. Platelets can be stored for only 5 to 7 days. Transfused platelets last two to three days, therefore until the body make its own platelets, a person might get platelet transfusion 2 to 3 times a week. C. Explain the significance of transfusing blood products as opposed to whole blood in some cases. Whole blood or blood components are used for transfusion. Blood components are parts of whole blood which are red blood cells, plasma, platelets, white blood cells, immunoglobulin and clotting factors. Whole blood is used for transfusion when the blood components are not available. The reason why most of the time whole blood is not used is because the patient’s medical condition can be treated with any of the...
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