Compare and contrast the foreign policy goals and achievements of Metternich (1815-1848) and Bismarck (1862-1890)
Metternich and Bismarck had many foreign goals in mind. Many of which led to their great achievements. Metternich was a chief constructor of the Congress of Vienna opposed to ideas of liberals and reformers who wanted to return power to the ruling families deposed by the prior Revolutions. Bismarck sought to unite Germany by engaging into wars including the Danish War, the Austro-Prussian War, and finally the Franco-Prussian War. Many of Metternich’s and Bismarck’s goals resulted in their achievements. His most important legacy is the unification of Germany. Both, Metternich and Bismarck sought to bring unity and stability to their nations, but in different ways. While Metternich was hard at work using his diplomatic skills trying to prevent German unification during the first half of the nineteenth century, Bismarck on the other hand was known as the Iron Chancellor, in the later nineteenth century set on to unite Germany through his many wars.
I. Foreign policy goals and achievements of Metternich
A. Congress of Vienna
1. Metternich was one of the main leaders in the establishment of the Congress of Vienna. 2. The Congress created the German Confederation, replacing the dissolved Holy Roman Empire. It also was composed of thirty-nine states under the leadership of Austria. Austria sought to prevent any step towards a constitution in as many of the independent states as possible. 3. The four major nations of Europe (Great Britain, Russia, Austria, and Prussia) all sought for a balance of power. B. Nationalism and Liberalism
1. Metternich advocated intervention in nationalist and liberalistic movements. 2. He thought that liberal parliamentary government would lead to fighting among national groups and Habsburg rulers. 3. He had suppressed the Italian revolt, hoping to make Austrian influence on Italy supreme....
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