The Conservative Order (1815-1830)
I. The immediate response to the defeat of Napoleon was the desire to contain revolution and the revolutionary forces by restoring much of the old order. The Peace Settlement
I. In March 1814,b/f Napoleon had been defeated, his 4 major enemies—Great Britain, Austria, Prussia, and Russia—had agreed to remain united, not only to defeat France but also to ensue peace after the war. A. After Napoleon’s defeat, this Quadruple Alliance restored the Bourbon monarchy to France in the person of Louis XVIII and agreed to meet at a congress in Vienna in September 1814 to arrange a final peace settlement. II. The leader of the Congress of Vienna was the Austrian foreign minister, Prince Klemens von Metternich. The Principle of Legitimacy
I. Metternich claimed that he was guided at Vienna by the principle of legitimacy. B. To reestablish peace and stability in Europe, he considered it necessary to restore the legitimate monarchs who would preserve traditional institutions. This had already been done in the restoration of the Bourbons in France and Spain. C. Elsewhere, the principle of legitimacy was largely ignored and overshadowed by more practical considerations of power. D. Prussia and Austria were allowed to keep some Polish territory. A new, nominally independent Polish kingdom was established w/the Romanov dynasty of Russia as its hereditary monarchs. Although Poland was granted its independence, the kingdom’s foreign policy remained under Russian control. A New Balance of Power
I. In making these territorial rearrangements, the diplomats at Vienna believed they were forming a new balance of power that would prevent any one country from dominating Europe. A. To balance Russian gains, Prussia and Austria had been strengthened. II. Considerations of the balance of power also dictated the allied treatment of France. France had...