Biology Test Notes

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BIOLOGY TEST NOTES
Biology is the study of life
Living organisms share a set of characteristics that collectively set them apart from non-living matter Living organisms use molecules that contain instructions for building other molecules Living organisms gather energy and materias from their surrounding to: Build new biological molecules

Grow in size
Repair their parts
Produce offspring
All organisms are composed of the same macromolecules (proteins, fatty acids/lipids, carbs and nucleic acids) All organisms engage in metabolism
Marinating internal balance in response to the environment is known as homeostasis The cell is an organized chemical system that includes many specialized molecules surrounded by a membrane The cell is the smallest until with the capacity to live and reproduce independently or as part of a multicellular organism. A virus is not a cell

A virus is an infectious agent that contains either DNA or RNA surrounded by a protein coat. Prokaryotic (Eubacteria, Archebacteria)
Eukaryotic (Plant, Animal, Fungi, Protists)
Prokaryotes are the most diverse of cells
EXTREMOPHILES- live in very inhospitable environments.
Methanogens (convert CO2 &H2 to CH4)
Acidophiles (live in low pH)
Thermophiles (live in extreme temperatures)
Cells are the lowest level of biological organization that can survive and reproduce, many single cells, such as bacteria and protozoans exists as unicellular organisms. Classification System: Humans (Homo sapiens)

DomainEukarya
Kingdom Animalia
PhylumChrodata
ClassMammalia
OrderPrimata
Family Hominidae
Genus Homo
SpeciesSapiens
First name is genus, second name is species.
Three domains are Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya
Bacteria: Unicellular, prokaryotic organisms
Archaea: Unicellular, prokaryotic organisms, live in extreme environments. Eukarya: eukaryotic organism, including plants, animals, fungi and protistans. Classification includes information from DNA sequences.

Biological Evolution helps us understand that all populations change throughout time, all organisms are descended from a common ancestor and evolution has produced the diversity of life. Epigenetics is the study of changes in gene expression or cellular phenotype. Scientific Method:

Observe
Hypothesis
Make Predictions
Test Predictions
Analyze results
Scientific theory is a framework which explains observed fats and be able to predict future observations

Biochemistry is the study of chemical processes within living organisms Atomic number is the number of protons
Atomic mass is the number of protons + neutrons
1 dalton = mass of 1 hydrogen
Electrons move in orbitals around the nucleus
Electrons that move in orbitals are called electron cloud and energy levels Orbitals can hold up to two electrons
Two main types of bonds are ionic bonds and covalent bonds
Covalent bond is sharing of electrons and ionic bonds are the transfer of electrons Valency is the number of single covalent bonds an atom can form Non polar covalent bond are the equal sharing of electrons

Polar covalent bonds are unequal sharing of electrons
Chemical equations: Reactants --- Products
Molecule: unit of matter in which two or more atoms of the same element or different ones are bonded together Compound: Molecules composed of two or more different elements in unvarying proportions Acids:

Donate H+ when dissolved in water
High [H+], Low [H-]
pH < 7
Bases:
Accepts H+ when dissolved in water
High [OH-], Low [H+]
pH > 7

Most complex molecules based on carbon are known as organic molecules All other substances are inorganic molecules (CO2)
Organic compounds: contain carbon and at least one H atom
Hydrocarbons: consist of only hydrogen atoms covalently bonded to carbon Methane (CH4) colorless and odorless gas is the simplest organic compound of all Functional groups are small, reactive groups of atoms which give larger molecules specific chemical properties Functions groups are linked by...
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