Biol 1020 Final Exam Review

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Biology 1020
Review Questions for Final Exam

1. who proposed the theory of natural selection
← Darwin and Wallace

2. what are the four characteristic features of natural selection ← Overpopulation
← Inherited variations within the species
← competition
← Survival of the fittest

3. how is fitness measured
← by survival and by the numbers who survive

4. what are some examples of selection in action
← Peppered Moth-industrial melanism
← Evolution of resistance to pesticides in insect populations ← Evolution of resistance to antibiotic in bacterial population

5. what are seven evidences of evolution
← Artificial Selection
← The fossil record
← Comparative Anatomy
← Comparative embryology
← Comparative biochemistry
← Continental drift
← Taxonomy

6. what are homologous structures, analogous structures, vestigial structures ← homologous – structures of organisms related to one another through common descent (wing of bat, arm of human, flipper of a whale) ← analogous – unrelated organisms with similar structures due to being exposed to similar environments (different cacti, sharks, dolphins) ← vestigial – structures that were once used in ancestral species, though overtime the organism would stop using them (whales leg bone)

7. what is taxonomy
← the identification and classification of species

8. who developed the binomial system, what are the two parts of a scientific name ← Linnaeus
← Genus
← Specific epithet

9. what is a population
← a group of individuals of the same species living in an environment.

10. what is the unit of evolution
← the population

11. what are the conditions necessary to maintain genetic equilibrium in a population ← mating is random in a large population
← mutation, migration, selection , gene flow, and genetic drift do not occur

12. what is the evolutionary role of mutations
← to cause variety, sometime resulting in an immunity to something, ← something that helps you better adapt

13. what is genetic drift, what are two examples of genetic drift ← random changes in a gene pool of small a small population due to chance ← bottleneck effect – natural event reduces population ← founder effect – when a few individuals colonize a new habitat, like an island

14. what are directional, stabilizing, and diversifying selection, what are examples of each ← directional – faavors variants of one extreme-1 white-4 blue- 10 black butterflies, slowly the population will produce more black and ween out the whites ← stabilizing – favors immediate variants by selecting against extreme variants-1 white-3 blue- 8 black, will wind up with more blue ← diversifying – selection favors both extreme variants over the intermediate variants- 1 white, 3 blue- 8 black then it will pick the two extremes winding up with 4 white-1 blue- 6 black

15. what is balanced polymorphism, what is an example of balanced polymorphism ← loss of harmful recessive gene through the deaths of the homozygotes and is balanced by the gain from large number of offspring produced by the favored heterozygotes ← A-Normal AA die from malaria

Aa sickle cell trait, survive malaria
← a-sickle cell aa sickle cell anemia, die

16. what is speciation, what are the two patterns of speciation ← The process by which one species splits to form two or more new species, is usually a by-product of genetic divergence between populations. ← Anagenesis

← Cladogenesis

17. what are the two concepts of a species (the two ways to define a species) ← Morphospecies-...
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