Binomial System

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Lesson 1
Assignment Questions
Describe the scientific system by which plants are classified, in a report of up to 500 words.
In this report, Cover:
*the significance of the binomial system
*why common names of plants should not be used to correctly identify plants.

The scientific system to classify and naming plants are controlled and coordinated by botanist throughout the world. The system of classification in plants is to classify them in groups with similar characteristics. Then continue to divide and sub-group until you have one type of plant in each group.

The main level of division in plants are as follows:
Plants are divided into PHYLA (singular: phylum)
Phyla can be divided into DIVISIONS
Divisions are divided into CLASSES
Classes are divided into ORDERS
Orders are divided into FAMILIES
Families are divided into GENERA (singular: genus)
GENERA are divided into SPECIES
Species are sometimes divided into VARIETIES

The concept of the binomial system was introduced by Carolus Linnalus (1707-1778) in 1753 for flowering plants. The system gives each plant a name which is made up of two parts. The first part is called the generic name (or genus) and always starts with a capital. The second part is the specific name (or epithet) and always comes after the generic name. The specific name always starts with lower case, unless it is name after a person or place.

The reason common names should not be used is that some common names are given to more than one plant creating confusion when communication about plants. Using botanical names allow identification worldwide. Common names can verify from one country to the next.

Answer each of the following briefly.
A. What are the major divisions found in the plant kingdom?

The major divisions found in the plant kingdom is Phyla, Division, Classes, orders, Families, Genera, Species and Varieties.

B.List the basic differences between angiosperms and gymnosperms.

The basic difference is that angiosperms are a flowering, seed plant produce seeds within a fruit, while the gymnosperms are naked seed bearing. The gymnosperms have seeds that are not enclosed by an ovary of fruit.

C. Define the meaning of the terms

Family: A taxonomic category of related organisms ranking below an order and above a genus. A family usually consists of several genera.
Genus: A taxonomic category ranking below a family and above a species and generally consisting of a group of species exhibiting similar characteristics. In taxonomic nomenclature the genus name is used, either alone or followed by a Latin adjective or epithet, to form the name of a species. Species:

a. A fundamental category of taxonomic classification, ranking below a genus or subgenus and consisting of related organisms capable of interbreeding. b. An organism belonging to such a category, represented in binomial nomenclature by an uncapitalised Latin adjective or noun following a capitalized genus name, as in Ananas comosus, the pineapple, and Equus caballus, the horse. Subspecies: A taxonomic subdivision of a species consisting of an interbreeding, usually geographically isolated population of organisms.

Variety: A taxonomic subdivision of a species consisting of an interbreeding, usually geographically isolated population of organisms.
Cultivar: A race or variety of a plant that has been created or selected intentionally and maintained through cultivation.

D.Give the scientific names of 10 different plant species not mentioned elsewhere to date in this course. For each, indicate which family they belong to, which name is the genus, which is the species and (if applicable) which is the variety or cultivar.

Name:Syzygium australecultivar
Family: MyrataceaeGenus:SyzygiumSpecies: S. australe
Name:Viola hederaceacultivar
Family: ViolaceaeGenus:ViolaSpecies: V. hederacea
Name:Hardenbergia violacea...
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