The term learning is used in various ways by different psychologist to refer to the wide variety of phenomena. Learning is any process through which experience at one time can alter an individual’s behavior at a future time.
The Behavioral perspective on LEARNING: acquiring ne responses to and for stimuli * Behaviorism is the attempt to understand behavior in terms of relationship between observable stimuli and observable response. * 2 separate learning processes
* Classical conditioning- a process by which a stimulus that previously did not elicit a response comes to elicit a response in a reflexlike fashion, after it is paired for one or more trails with a stimulus that already elicits a response. * Operant conditioning- process by which the consequences of a response increase or decrease the likelihood that the response will occur again. A. Classical Conditioning
a. Petrovich Pavlov
b. Has to do with the formation of reflexes
i. Reflex is a simple, relatively automatic, stimulus response sequence mediated by the nervous system. c. Reflexes are mediated by the nervous system, they can be modified by experience ii. One simple effect experience is habituation
1. Habituation is defined as a decline in the magnitude of a reflexive response when the stimulus is repeated several times in succession d. Conditioned vs. unconditioned reflex
e. Conditioned vs. unconditioned response
B. Operant Conditioning
f. Operant responses- operate on the world to produce some effect iii. Also called instrumental responses because they function like instruments g. Edward L. Thorndike
iv. Thorndike’s Puzzle-Box Procedure
v. Thorndike’s Law of Effect
2. Responses that produce a satisfying effect in a particular situation become likely to occur again I that situation, and responses that produce a discomforting...