Basic equations of fluid statics| | | | |
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| | An equation representing pressure field P = P (x, y, z) within fluid at rest is derived in this section. Since the fluid is at rest, we can define the pressure field in terms of space dimensions (x, y and z) only. Consider a fluid element of rectangular parellopiped shape( Fig : L - 7.1) within a large fluid region which is at rest. The forces acting on the element are body and surface forces. | |

Body force : The body force due to gravity is
L -7.1 where is the volume of the element.
Surface force : The pressure at the center of the element is assumed to be P (x, y, z). Using Taylor series expansion the pressure at point on the surface can be expressed as

L -7.2 When , only the first two terms become significant. The above equation becomes L - 7.3

Similarly, pressures at the center of all the faces can be derived in terms of P (x, y, z) and its gradient. Note that surface areas of the faces are very small. The center pressure of the face represents the average pressure on that face. The surface force acting on the element in the y-direction is L -7.4

Similarly the surface forces on the other two directions (x and z) will be

The surface force which is the vectorical sum of the force scalar components L - 7.5 The total force acting on the fluid is
L - 7.6

The total force per unit volume is

For a static fluid, dF=0 .
Then, L -7.7
If acceleration due to gravity is expressed as , the...

...Experiment 3: Fluid Flow Friction and Fitting Loss
Objective
To determine the pressure or head loss in different diameters pipes, joints and valves
Theory
Pipe flows belong to a broader class of flows, called internal flows, where the fluid is completely bounded by solid surfaces. In contrast, in external flows, such as flow over a flat plate or an airplane wing, only part of the flow is bounded by a solid surface. The term pipe flow is generally used to...

...1. Using diagrams and/or graphs, explain the following terms:
a. Pressure Head
pressure head [′presh·ər ‚hed]
(fluid mechanics)
Also known as head.
The height of a column of fluid necessary to develop a specific pressure.
The pressure of water at a given point in a pipe arising from the pressure in it.
b. Total Discharge Head
Total discharge head refers to the actual physical difference in height between the liquid level in the pit and the highest point of the...

...1. Identify each of the following statements as either true or false. If false, explain why.
(a) Viscosity is a measure of how easily a fluid flows.
(b) Although important, fluids are not essential to many living things.
(c) A meniscus forms when water particles adhere to the sides of their container.
(d) Buoyancy, like water pressure, acts in all directions.
2. Describe the relationship between mass, volume, and density of matter.
3. Use the particle...

...FRICTION
Problem 507
The 2225-N block shown in Fig. P-507 is in contact with 45° incline. The coefficient of static friction is 0.25. Compute the value of the horizontal force P necessary to (a) just start the block up the incline or (b) just prevent motion down the incline. (c) If P = 1780 N, what is the amount and direction of the friction force?
Solution 507
Part (a) – Force P to just start the block to move up the incline
The force P is pushing the block up the...

...Week One Exercise Assignment
Basic Accounting Equations
1. Recognition of normal balances
The following items appeared in the accounting records of Triguero's, a retail music store that also sponsors concerts. Classify each of the items as an asset, liability; revenue; or expense from the company's viewpoint. Also indicate the normal account balance of each item.
a. Amounts paid to a mall for rent.
b. Amounts to be paid in 10 days to suppliers.
c....

...UNIVERSITI TUNKU ABDUL RAHMAN
Faculty
Course
Year/
Semester
Session
:
:
:
Engineering & Science
ME, MM, MH, BI, CI, CL
Y1S1, Y1S2, Y1S3
:
Unit Code
Unit Title
Lecturer
:
:
:
UEME1132
Statics
Ms. Lam Foong Sin
201405
Experiment 1: Young’s Modulus
Introduction
The Young’s Modulus Apparatus is a bench-top model designed for students to understand and to
determine Young’s Modulus of given material samples.
It consists of an epoxy coated...

...Fluid Balance
Explain in detail the fluid compartments of the body, including distribution of fluid and electrolytes within each compartment and the movement between compartments.
In the average person water constitutes 60% to the total body weight.: 42L in a 70kg individual.
40% is intracellelular fluid, while remaining 20% is extracellular.
The extracellular fluid can be divided into plasma (from intravascular...

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