Introduction
The purpose of this experiment to find the effect of temperature on buoyancy . Backround Information
Buoyancy (also known as the buoyant force) is the force exerted on an object that is wholly or partly immersed in a fluid. The symbol for the magnitude of buoyancy is B or FB
As a vector it must be stated with both magnitude and direction. Buoyancy acts upward for the kind of situations encountered in everyday experience. As with other forces, the SI unit of buoyancy is the newton [N]. Buoyancy is caused by differences in pressure acting on opposite sides of an object immersed in a static fluid. A typical situation:

The pressure on the bottom of an object is greater than the top (since pressure increases with depth).
The force on the bottom pushes up and the force on the top pushes down (since force is normal to the surface).
The direction of the net force due to the fluid is upward.
Pressure variations in a fluid are typically caused by gravity (since P = P0 + ρgh), but in general buoyant forces act opposite the direction of the frame of reference acceleration. Under conditions of apparent weightlessness there can be no buoyant forces. Archimedes' Principle

The magnitude of the buoyant force on an object is equal to the weight of the fluid it displaces.
B = ρgVdisplaced

The factors that affect buoyancy are …
the density of the fluid,
the volume of the fluid displaced, and
the local acceleration due to gravity.
The buoyant force is not affected by …
the mass of the immersed object or
the density of the immersed object.
Objects immersed in a fluid have an apparent weight that is … reduced by the buoyant force (less than their actual weight) W′ = W − B (W′ < W)
directly proportional to the relative density (ρ′ = ρobject − ρfluid) W′ = ρ′gV
Research Question
Does increasing the temperature (C) of 2 L water effects water’s buoyancy(N) ? Hypothesis
As the...

...1. A Little About Buoyancy
o In order to understand how a boat can float in water we must first go over one of the principles behind such a feat: buoyancy. This principle in physics was discovered by the mathematician Archimedes about 2,000 years ago, so it has been taught and understood for some time now. The basics of buoyancy involve the relationship between the weight of the object in question, in this case a boat, and the weight of the water it displaces. If the object weighs more than the water it displaces, it is going to sink to the bottom. This object is negatively buoyant. If the weight of the object is the same as the weight of the water it displaces, it is going to hover suspended in the water. This is called neutral buoyancy. Finally, if the weight of the object is less than the weight of the water it displaces, such as in the case of a boat, it is going to float. It is positively buoyant.
A Little About Displacement
o Now that we understand what buoyancy is, let's take a look at water displacement, since it has so much to do with buoyancy and the floating of a boat. Archimedes is said to have discovered this scientific principle as he lowered himself into a bathtub one day. No doubt you have seen it yourself. When you sit in a bathtub, or lower anything into water, the water level rises, because some of it is being displaced. An object will always displace an...

...displaced fluid is the volume of the object, and for a floating object on a liquid, the weight of the displaced liquid is the weight of the object.
More tersely: Buoyancy = weight of displaced fluid.
Archimedes' principle does not consider the surface tension (capillarity) acting on the body,[3] but this additional force modifies only the amount of fluid displaced, so the principle that Buoyancy = weight of displaced fluid remains valid.
The weight of the displaced fluid is directly proportional to the volume of the displaced fluid (if the surrounding fluid is of uniform density). In simple terms, the principle states that the buoyancy force on an object is going to be equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object, or the density of the fluid multiplied by the submerged volume times the gravitational acceleration, g. Thus, among completely submerged objects with equal masses, objects with greater volume have greater buoyancy.This is also known as upthrust.
Suppose a rock's weight is measured as 10 newtons when suspended by a string in a vacuum with gravity acting upon it. Suppose that when the rock is lowered into water, it displaces water of weight 3 newtons. The force it then exerts on the string from which it hangs would be 10 newtons minus the 3 newtons of buoyancy force: 10 − 3 = 7 newtons. Buoyancy reduces the apparent weight of objects that have sunk completely to the...

...
“The Domino Effect”
Teacher’s Prompt
Investigate the domino effect with a set of dominoes.
Aim
To investigate the relationship between the mass of the dominoes, and how it impacts the time taken of the domino effect.
Independent Variable: The mass of each domino (12.38 g, 32.38 g, 42.38 g, 62.38 g, 82.38 g).
Dependent Variable: Time taken of the domino effect.
Controlled Variable: The number of dominoes used (8 dominoes), the distance between the dominoes (2 cm), the loads used as the initial force applied on the domino (50g), the inclined plane used as a platform that will direct the load to hit the first domino (20o), the stopwatch used to time the domino effect, the person using the stopwatch, the person releasing the metal weight from the top of the inclined plane, the ruler used to measure the distance between the dominoes.
Equipment
1 Inclined Plane
1 (50 g) Metal Weight
4 x 8 (20 g) Metal Weight
8 Dominoes (Uno Stackos)
1 Digital Mass Balance (± 0.01 g)
1 Masking Tape
1 Protractor
1 Ruler
1 Stopwatch (± 0.01 s)
-34290039687500Diagram
Analysis of Variables
Independent Variable:
The mass of the dominoes will vary ranging from 12.38 g to 82.38 g. The increase between each of the variable will be constantly 20 g, to satisfy the range of the mass; the original mass of the domino is 12.38 g, and an additional mass from a 20 g of load will be attached on top of the domino...

...
Free Fall
Rachel Shea
Physics 131 Lab, QL
Hasbrouck 210
Sept. 21, 2014
Abstract
This experiment measures the study of motion by observing the force of gravity acting solely upon an object, and also measures reaction time. If an object is in free fall, the only force acting upon it is gravity. The object used in this experiment was a golf ball that provided some acceleration when dropped. A sensor positioned underneath a table recorded the golf ball’s pattern of motion, when dropped. The main objective of performing this experiment is to measure the velocity and position of the ball to eventually find the acceleration of free fall. A computer program called, DataStudio, was used to create a graph of position vs. time and a graph of velocity vs. time. The second part of the experiment involved randomly dropping a ruler and having your partner catch it to determine reaction time.
Questions
1. The parabolic curves open upward instead of downward because of the golf balls movement over time: where it is dropped from, to where it ends up. The ball begins close to the sensor, then drops to the ground, then bounces back up closer to sensor again, therefore the bounces correspond with the bottom curves of the parabola. If the data were collected from the floor then the curve would open downward. But because the sensor graphs the position from the sensor, the curve was upwards.
2.
-4572009207500
The slope of the velocity versus time graph physically...

...or how much momentum the car had. The passenger inside the car however, will continue moving in their same direction and speed, which is the same as the direction and speed in which the car was going, until they are met by an equal and opposite force. As a result, they will keep on moving and been thrown out of the seat due to inertia effect. As according to Newton’s Second Law, in the case of vehicle accident such as car crash, since the momentum changes instantly, the force becomes extremely great. Impulsive force is produced during the collision and it will cause severe damage to the car, and may also injure the passengers in it. 3 The passengers’ momentum can be stopped by objects in the car such as dashboard, side door, or windshield, however, it will cause serious injuries because the force would be very great. To increase the safety of the driver and the passengers, safety devices such as seatbelts, air bags, crumple zones, and etc. are introduced. Safety devices such as seatbelts, air bags, crumple zones and etc are designed to reduce the forces on the body if there is a collision. These safety devices are mostly made based on the physics principle of force and momentum, which is
This relationship says that if momentum is transferred over a longer period of time, the force involved is less. If the force of a collision can be reduced, then the chances that someone would get hurt in an accident are lower.4 Since momentum cannot be...

...Variable: Amount of Oxygen released
Control Variable: Volume of Hydrogen peroxide, size of Potato,
concentration of Hydrogen Peroxide
Hypothesis
I predict that the breakdown of Hydrogen Peroxide will be quicker when
the surface area is increased. If you cut the same size piece of
potato into smaller pieces, I believe, the breakdown will be faster. I
predict that an increase in surface area will result in an increase in
kinetic energy. Since the size of the area increases, I think that
more oxygen will be released from the Hydrogen Peroxide and Catalyse.
We will be measuring the two main factors: -
* Oxygen - the amount released from the Hydrogen peroxide
* Time - The duration of the reaction
The room temperature may be a factor that will affect our results.
Therefore we will have to try our bests to inure the test is carries
out under the same conditions.
To make it fair we will allow the reactions to have the same amount of
time to occur. We will only change the amount of catalyse in the tube.
To obtain the best possible results I will repeat each experiment
three times and then find the average set of data to plot my graph.
Our measurements will be very precise as we will carry out the
experiment as safely and fairly as possible. We are using accurate
apparatus to allow us to achieve this.
Investigation Experiment
I am going to investigate how the enzyme, Catalyse reacts at different...

...AIM
To find the acceleration of an object when falling down from a height in the presence of earth’s gravitational field, which is also known as free fall. Air resistance is neglected in this experiment.
THEORY
As an object is released from a height from the ground under the influence of the Earth’s gravitational force, the object will always fall under a constant rate of acceleration. Unlike in space, where object will just float around after being released, object falling on Earth will always be pulled towards the ground by gravity. Since the gravitational force of the Earth is always the same at a particular place, the object will fall with a constantly increasing speed, that is if air resistance is neglected. This acceleration is independent of the object’s mass or height; it only depends on the strength of the gravitational field.
RAW DATA TABLE
PROCESSED DATA TABLE
DATA PROCESSING
GRAPH t²/s² AGAINST HEIGHT FROM GROUND h/m
JUSTIFICATION FOR UNCERTAINTIES AND CALCULATIONS
1) Uncertainty for metre rule
* Half of the smallest division on the analog instrument
= 0.01m/2
=0.005m
2) Uncertainty for time taken
* Smallest division on a digital stopwatch
=0.01s
3) Average time
= 0.74+0.75+0.773
=0.75s (for height=2.200m)
4) Uncertainty for average time
=(maximum time-minimum time)2
=(0.77-0.74)2
=0.015≈0.02
5) Calculation of T2/s2
=0.752
=0.56 (for...

...Chee Yong Hui 6.5
Domino Effect IA
Investigate the effect of the distance between each domino on the time taken for all the dominoes to fall
Independent Variable: Distance, d/cm, between each domino. The distance d/cm is measured between the middle of one domino to the middle of the next domino
Dependent Variable: Time taken for all the dominoes to be toppled to the ground. The timing will start when the 1st domino is hit by a metal ball and it will stop when the last domino falls completely.
Controlled Variables:
1. Force used to push the first domino down which sets of the chain reaction
2. Fixed wind draft
3. Angle of one domino with respect to the neighboring domino
4. Mass of one domino
5. Number of dominoes
6. Flatness of surface
Controlled Variables
Mass of each domino
The dominoes should be of the same mass; a domino with a large mass requires more force to topple than a domino with a small mass. Therefore, the time taken for all 50 dominoes to fall will be less for a smaller mass, giving us unfair value of time taken for all dominoes to fall. To ensure that they are of the same mass, we could use a mass balance to weigh each domino to determine if they are of equal mass (±0.1kg) and vernier calipers can be used to determine the height of each domino block.
Force applied to knock down the first domino
In order to fall a domino, a force is needed to be applied to push the first block down which will then set...

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