Basic English Grammar Book

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  • Topic: Pronoun, Subjective pronoun
  • Pages : 113 (17033 words )
  • Download(s) : 40
  • Published : January 7, 2013
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S t r a t e g y :

strategy text:

writing is a good exercise to detect, work on, and correct grammar errors .

Write about a strange or funny experience that you have undergone or that one of your friends or relatives has undergone in the past.

Verbs are defined as words that with nouns make a statement, a command or a request, or ask a question about someone or something.

I/ MOOD OF VERBS: Verbs are divided into three moods:

A/ the indicative mood that indicates facts and realities ➢ John is a doctor
➢ Are the students in class?
➢ Please forgive me !

B/ the imperative mood which is used to give orders.
➢ Do your homework right now.
➢ Don’t smoke in class.

C/ the subjunctive mood is used for hypothetical or contrary to fact conditions. ➢ Indicative :Zineb exercises every day.
➢ Subjunctive:it’s necessary that Zineb exercise every day. it’s necessary that Zineb Be on time. it’s necessary that Zineb Were on time.

N.B :

← The subjunctive mood is always used in sentences introduced by expressions of influencing, asking, ordering and demanding such as:

← With sentences that contain the words if or wish we always use the plural form of be (were) in the past never was:

➢ Zineb wishes she were born in USA.
➢ If I were you I would choose to go to Dallas.

II/ CAUSATIVE VERBS:

Causative verbs are the verbs which are used to cause or force someone to do something. The sentence has two subjects the main subject is not the doer of the action but he only causes the second subject to do the job. The causative verbs are make, have and get.

➢ The teacher has Zineb review the lesson. ➢ The teacher makes Zineb review the lesson.
➢ The teacher gets Zineb to review the lesson.

N.B: Notice the different usage of “to have” used as a verb, as an auxiliary and as a causative verb: ➢ As a verb (to possess) : Linda has some homework to do. ➢ As an auxiliary (perfect tense) :Linda has done her homework. ➢ As a causative verb:Linda has Zineb do her homework.

III/ SO – TOO // EITHER – NIETHER:

Those four words are only used to avoid repetition. So and too are used to avoid a positive repetition while either and neither avoid a negative repetition.

A/ Affirmative

➢ Zineb is a student
➢ John is a student

➢ Zineb studies very hard
➢ John studies very hard

➢ Zineb can help me
➢ John can help me

A/ Negative

➢ Zineb isn’t a student
➢ John isn’t a student

➢ Zineb doesn’t study very hard
➢ John doesn’t study very hard

➢ Zineb can’t help me
➢ John can’t help me

IV/ BE USED TO // USED TO:

Be used to should always be followed by ”ING” and it refers to actions that we have just been familiar or accustomed to doing them. We didn’t in the past. “Used to” should be used with past time habits that we had in the past but that we no more do or have them now.

➢ Clara is used to smoking cigarettes. (she didn’t in the past but now she starts smoking) ➢...
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