REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
In a study, “Papers and Boards from Banana Stem Waste” in which they used banana stem waste in producing paper and board because banana is a very good source of cellulose. Banana stem waste, thrown away by farmers after harvesting of fruits, was procured as raw material. It was chopped by 3-4” size usually at a rate of about 100 kg material per day. The material was soaked in 1-2% NaOH for appropriate period. The alkali loosens the ligno-cellulosic bonds, thereby softening the material. Then it was washed with water. The washed material was then subjected to beating in a Hollander beater, a machine developed by the Dutch in 1680 to produce paper pulp from cellulose containing plant fibers. A period of three to four hours of beating was required for getting a good quality of pulp. It was observed that depending upon the quality of boards to be produced, appropriate amount of fillers, loading material or chemicals were used during wet beating. For production of hard boards, suitable quantity of resins like urea formaldehyde and phenol formaldehyde are added in the beater itself while maintaining pH. The wet boards are then allowed to dry under direct sun on bamboo frames specially made for this purpose.
Handmade paper from rice straw was a product developed by the Forest Products Research and Development Institute (FPRDI), a line agency of the DOST. In 1986, the technology was fully developed and the product was commercialized locally. The major material input used for the production of handmade paper was rice straw, an agricultural waste which was available in abundance locally. The other inputs which were also available in the domestic market were sodium hydroxide, sodium or calcium hypochlorite and paper additives such as rosin size, starch and alum (aluminum sulfate or tawas). Rosin size was used to prevent liquid penetration and make paper smooth, alum to enhance cohesion of the fibers and starch to bind fibers together. The pulping process involves the boiling of rice stalks in two percent sodium hydroxide solution, with liquor to material ratio of 10:1, for about two hours until the stalks become soft. The stalks are drained right after boiling and transferred into a screen-bottom box. Then, the stalks are thoroughly washed with water at least three times and pounded with a wooden mallet. After pounding, the pulp is screened by under high water pressure using a double-decked screen box. Bleaching of the pulp may either be a single or multi-stage procedure depending on the desired colour of the paper. After every bleaching, the pulp is thoroughly washed with water. Paper additives such as rosin size, starch and alum are added to the pulp and the mixed substance is stirred continuously. Then, the mixture is laid on a dry and flat surface. Finally, the mixture is pressed down with a rolling pin or pressed to form the sheet. However, in this study their major ingredient in making the paper was rice straw while our major components were banana fibers and stalks.
The aim of the experiment, “Use of banana tree residues as pulp for paper and combustible,” by Rosal, A., Rodriguez A. Gonzales, Z. and Jimenez, C. (Accepted 23 March 2012) was to evaluate the optimal use of banana tree residues, by two ways: first by subjecting them to pulping process with soda-anthraquinone as pulping liquor, studying the influence of operating variables on the properties of the pulps and the corresponding paper sheets obtained from them; the second way is to use them as fuel, determining the heating values, flame temperature and dew point temperature of the combustion gases, comparing their values with those found for other lignocellulosic materials.
The pulp was obtained by using a 15-L batch cylindrical reactor that was heated by means of electrical wires and was linked through a rotary axle (to ensure proper agitation) to a control unit including a motor actuating the reactor and the...
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