Bakkar

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( we need to link this topics to practical example as a half part of our presentation) PRODUCT QUALITY
What is quality?
If a product fulfills the customer’s expectations, the customer will be pleased and consider that the product is of acceptable or even high quality. If his or her expectations are not fulfilled, the customer will consider that the product is of low quality. This means that the quality of a product may be defined as “its ability to fulfill the customer’s needs and expectations”. Quality needs to be defined firstly in terms of parameters or characteristics, which vary from product to product. For example, for a mechanical or electronic product these are performance, reliability, safety and appearance. For pharmaceutical products, parameters such as physical and chemical characteristics, medicinal effect, toxicity, taste and shelf life may be important. For a food product they will include taste, nutritional properties, texture, and shelf life and so on. "Time was when a man could order a pair of shoes directly from the cobbler. By measuring the foot himself and personally handling all aspects of manufacturing, the cobbler could assure the customer would be satisfied," lamented Dr. Yoji Akao, one of the founders of QFD, in his private lectures. Quality Function Deployment (QFD) was developed to bring this personal interface to modern manufacturing and business. In today's industrial society, where the growing distance between producers and users is a concern, QFD links the needs of the customer (end user) with design, development, engineering, manufacturing, and service functions. QFD is:

1. Understanding Customer Requirements
2. Quality Systems Thinking + Psychology + Knowledge/Epistemology 3. Maximizing Positive Quality That Adds Value
4. Comprehensive Quality System for Customer Satisfaction 5. Strategy to Stay Ahead of The Game
As a quality system that implements elements of Systems Thinking with elements of Psychology and Epistemology (knowledge), QFD provides a system of comprehensive development process for: * Understanding 'true' customer needs from the customer's perspective * What 'value' means to the customer, from the customer's perspective * Understanding how customers or end users become interested, choose, and are satisfied * Analyzing how do we know the needs of the customer

* Deciding what features to include
* Determining what level of performance to deliver
* Intelligently linking the needs of the customer with design, development, engineering, manufacturing, and service functions * Intelligently linking Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) with the front end Voice of Customer analysis and the entire design system QFD is a comprehensive quality system that systematically links the needs of the customer with various business functions and organizational processes, such as marketing, design, quality, production, manufacturing, sales, etc., aligning the entire company toward achieving a common goal.  

It does so by seeking both spoken and unspoken needs, identifying positive quality and business opportunities, and translating these into actions and designs by using transparent analytic and prioritization methods, empowering organizations to exceed normal expectations and provide a level of unanticipated excitement that generates value.  

The QFD methodology can be used for both tangible products and non-tangible services, including manufactured goods, service industry, software products, IT projects, business process development, government, and healthcare, environmental Initiatives and many other applications.

(And from text book page umber 174 to 179…………. If u guys find it relevant)

STANDARDIZATION

As a design is being developed from the conceptual level to the detailed level, a physical and functional requirement envelope is defined in which a part must fit and perform. Within the constraints of this envelope, a designer must design or...
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