A facial recognition system is a computer application for automatically identifying or verifying a person from a digital image or a video frame from a video source. One of the ways to do this is by comparing selected facial features from the image and a facial database. It is typically used in security systems and can be compared to other biometrics such as fingerprint or eye iris recognition systems. Final template
Some facial recognition algorithms identify facial features by extracting landmarks, or features, from an image of the subject's face. For example, an algorithm may analyze the relative position, size, and/or shape of the eyes, nose, cheekbones, and jaw. These features are then used to search for other images with matching features. Other algorithms normalize a gallery of face images and then compress the face data, only saving the data in the image that is useful for face detection. A probe image is then compared with the face data. One of the earliest successful systems is based on template matching techniques applied to a set of salient facial features, providing a sort of compressed face representation. Recognition algorithms can be divided into two main approaches, geometric, which look at distinguishing features, or photometric, which is a statistical approach that distills an image into values and compares the values with templates to eliminate variances. Popular recognition algorithms include Principal Component Analysis using Eigen-faces, Linear Discriminate Analysis, Elastic Bunch Graph Matching using the Fisher-face algorithm, the Hidden Markov model, and the neuronal motivated dynamic link matching.
ADVANCED 3-DIMENTIONAL RECOGNITION:
A newly emerging trend, claimed to achieve improved accuracies, is three-dimensional face recognition. This technique uses 3D sensors to capture information about the shape of a face. This information is then used to identify distinctive features on the surface of a face, such as the contour of the eye sockets, nose, and chin. One advantage of 3D facial recognition is that it is not affected by changes in lighting like other techniques. It can also identify a face from a range of viewing angles, including a profile view. Three-dimensional data points from a face vastly improve the precision of facial recognition. 3D research is enhanced by the development of sophisticated sensors that do a better job of capturing 3D face imagery. The sensors work by projecting structured light onto the face. Up to a dozen or more of these image sensors can be placed on the same CMOS chip—each sensor captures a different part of the spectrum.Even a perfect 3D matching technique could be sensitive to expressions. For that goal a group at the Teknion applied tools from metric geometry to treat expressions as isometrics. SKIN TEXTURE ANALYSIS:
Another emerging trend uses the visual details of the skin, as captured in standard digital or scanned images. This technique, called skin texture analysis, turns the unique lines, patterns, and spots apparent in a person’s skin into a mathematical space. Tests have shown that with the addition of skin texture analysis, performance in recognizing faces can increase 20 to 25 percent.
FACE AS A BIOMETRIC:
Face recognition has a number of strengths to recommend it over other biometric modalities in certain circumstances, and corresponding weaknesses that make it an inappropriate choice of biometric for other applications. Face recognition as a biometric derives a number of advantages from being the primary biometric that humans use to recognize one another. Some of the earliest identification tokens, i.e. portraits, use this biometric as an authentication pattern. Furthermore it is well-accepted and easily understood by people, and it is easy for a human operator to arbitrate machine decisions, in fact face images are often used as a...