Atom and Electron Dot Diagram

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Chemistry SCH4U-B Lesson 1 Key Questions

1. The development of MRI imaging technology is one useful spinoff of basic research into the structure of the atom. Research, however, is expensive. Many people argue that the high cost of research outweighs its potential benefits. Provide one argument for, and one argument against increasing current funding for atomic structure research. Use specific examples from this lesson in your answer to support each position. (6marks)

There are several benefits that we can gain from the development of MRI imagining technology. A common argument for continuing the research in atomic and sub atomic structure is basically due to the greater understanding of the universe. Specifically, we gain better understanding of how the structure of the atom works, as we study the interaction of small particles which gives us a better understanding of the world. The data which we have on how electrons and atoms interact is gathered mostly on observations alone. For example, the properties of hydrogen atoms can distinguish between the different tissues and muscles within the human body, this is because the human body consists of 63% of hydrogen atoms and we learn all this data through the understanding of atomic particles. We can discover several ideas, if we continue with the research such as, new elements, their properties, amount of energy and how we could use that knowledge to our advantage.

An argument against continuing the research on the structural atom search is the cost is too high compared to collecting the result. Quantum Chemistry cost was very low during the 1900s and gave us beneficial results. For example, today, final cost for a project known as Large Hadron Collider was around $9 billion but as of yet it has not given any practical results. Unlikely, during the mid-1900s, Schrödinger equation and some of the other main discoveries related to everything that is chemistry today. The following accomplishments were made through planning and a great knowledge of chemistry without any significant sums. Therefore, it is not always necessary to base a research on large amounts of money, but it can easily be accomplished through complex development and rarely any of the experiments require a high cost experiment.

2. The emission spectrum of an unknown element contains two lines-one in the visible portion of a spectrum, and the other, ultraviolet. Based on Figure 1.1 and on what you have learned about Niels Bohr’s model of the atom, account for the difference in energy between these lines. (3 marks) Visible lights waves are the only electromagnetic waves visible to the human eye, and we can see these waves as different colours of the rainbow. On the other hand Ultraviolet light is invisible to the human eye and has a shorter wavelength than visible light. Visible light consists of only molecular electron excitation which emits greater wavelength but has less energy than ultraviolet light. That is because ultraviolet consists of excitation of molecular and atomic valence electrons transition. Therefore, Ultraviolet light has short wavelength but more energy and visible light has longer wavelength but involves low energy. Electron Transition Characteristics:

* In visible light, during the electron transition the electron jumps to a higher energy level, and then falls back producing a visible light spectrum. * In ultraviolet light the energy is high, but the electron jump is not as high as in the visible light, therefore , it produces dark lines in the spectrum. 3. Electronic configuration:

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d2

Electronic configuration:
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d2

a) Draw the energy-level Diagram and write the electronic configuration for zirconium (element 40). (3 marks) Energy...
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