Review of related literature
2.1 The role of the school canteen
As part of the school environment, the canteen is in a unique position to make a positive contribution to students’ health and welfare. The school, together with parents, has a responsibility to educate students about food and nutrition. School canteens have several important functions: * to provide a service to the school community
* to provide a variety of nutritious and attractively presented food and drinks at a reasonable cost * to practically reinforce the curriculum in Tasmanian Schools * to maintain high standards of hygiene in handling, preparing, serving and storage of food in line with the Tasmanian Food Act, 2003 and the Food Safety Standards * to function as an efficient business by:
* offering a regular, high‐quality service to the school community * Operating at a break‐even point or at a reasonable profit for the benefit of the school and, in turn, each child. Through involvement in the work of the canteen, parents can: * contribute to setting educational goals and policies
* participate in the development or evaluation of a canteen policy * Look at health and nutrition education in general.
This may be done as members of a canteen committee or as interested parents assisting directly with the work of the canteen.
When canteen staff, parents, teachers and students work together, the canteen can become a focal point for nutrition education that supports and reinforces what students learn at home, in the classroom and in the community.
(The Tasmanian School Canteen Handbook- Auatralia)
2.2 Personal Beliefs, Values, and Food Experiences
Food choice and dietary consumption in LTC facilities are influenced by past experiences with food and eating, which are formed by one's values and beliefs (Briley, 1994; Parraga, 1990; Khan, 1998). Attitudes surrounding food behaviour and eating are formed through life experiences with food. LTC residents are a heterogeneous group and come from a variety of social and cultural backgrounds, thus having a diverse set of food values, beliefs, and experiences which may influence their eating behaviour.
1.3 Social Factors
Social situations experienced by residents may affect their nutrient intakes (Marcus & Berry, 1998). McIntosh, Shifflett and Picou (1989) found that being married is associated with good nutritional health, and when a spouse dies significant changes in the surviving partner such as a poor self-concept, loss of social networks, and changes in eating patterns may result (Shifflett & McIntosh, 1986). In LTC facilities, the prevalence of widowhood and decreased social networks often is associated with poor mealtime enjoyment, decreased appetite, and weight loss (Rosenbloom & Whittington, 1993). This contrasts with community-dwelling elderly, where strong social networks and friendships are positively associated with improved appetite and nutrient intake (McIntosh et aI., 1989).
1.4 Provincial Food Service Delivery and Nutrition Regulations Currently, no provincial regulations specific to food service delivery, nutritional care or dietitian time/services in LTC facilities exist in Saskatchewan compared to other Canadian provinces (Barker, 1998). Since health care is a provincial matter, legislation and standards may vary from province to province. Barker (1998) surveyed dietitians employed by LTC facilities in 10 Canadian provinces; British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, and Newfoundland. The topics that were addressed were provincial LTC legislation, regulations and/or standards in relation to dietary/nutrition services, how LTC food and nutrition services are funded, and current LTC trends. There is considerable diversity in...