Artificial Intelligence by: Biswanil Bose

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ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

ABSTRACT
This paper is the introduction to Artificial intelligence (AI). Artificial intelligence is exhibited by artificial entity, a system is generally assumed to be a computer. AI systems are now in routine use in economics, medicine, engineering and the military, as well as being built into many common home computer software applications, traditional strategy games like computer chess and other video games. We tried to explain the brief ideas of AI and its application to various fields. It cleared the concept of computational and conventional categories. It includes various advanced systems such as Neural Network, Fuzzy Systems and Evolutionary computation. AI is used in typical problems such as Pattern recognition, Natural language processing and more. This system is working throughout the world as an artificial brain. Intelligence involves mechanisms, and AI research has discovered how to make computers carry out some of them and not others. If doing a task requires only mechanisms that are well understood today, computer programs can give very impressive performances on these tasks. Such programs should be considered ``somewhat intelligent''. It is related to the similar task of using computers to understand human intelligence.

Biswanil Bose
0801293019
3rd Year, 6th Semester

INTRODUCTION :-
Artificial intelligence (AI) is defined as intelligence exhibited by an artificial entity. Such a system is generally assumed to be a computer. Although AI has a strong science fiction connotation, it forms a vital branch of computer science, dealing with intelligent behaviour, learning and adaptation in machines. Research in AI is concerned with producing machines to automate tasks requiring intelligent behavior. Examples include control, planning and scheduling, the ability to answer diagnostic and consumer questions, handwriting, speech, and facial recognition. As such, it has become a scientific discipline, focused on providing solutions to real life problems. AI systems are now in routine use in economics, medicine, engineering and the military, as well as being built into many common home computer software applications, traditional strategy games like computer chess and other video games.

History :-
The intellectual roots of AI, and the concept of intelligent machines, may be found in Greek mythology. Intelligent artifacts appear in literature since then, with real mechanical devices actually demonstrating behaviour with some degree of intelligence. After modern computers became available following World War-II, it has become possible to create programs that perform difficult intellectual tasks. 1950 - 1960:-

The first working AI programs were written in 1951 to run on the Ferranti Mark I machine of the University of Manchester (UK): a draughts-playing program written by Christopher Strachey and a chess-playing program written by Dietrich Prinz.

1960 – 1970 :-
During the 1960s and 1970s Marvin Minsky and Seymour Papert publish Perceptrons, demonstrating limits of simple neural nets and Alain Colmerauer developed the Prolog computer language. Ted Shortliffe demonstrated the power of rule-based systems for knowledge representation and inference in medical diagnosis and therapy in what is sometimes called the first expert system. Hans Moravec developed the first computer-controlled vehicle to autonomously negotiate cluttered obstacle courses. 1980’s ONWARDS :-

In the 1980s, neural networks became widely used with the back propagation algorithm, first described by Paul John Werbos in 1974. The 1990s marked major achievements in many areas of AI and demonstrations of various applications. Most notably Deep Blue, a chess-playing computer, beat Garry Kasparov in a famous six-game match in 1997.

Fundamentals

* The notion of expressing computation as an algorithm
* Godel’s Incompleteness Theorm(1931):
In any language expressive...
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