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Running head: THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC

The relationship between instrumental music participation and standardized assessment achievement of middle school students: Article review assignment

Md Emtiaz Rony

Kent State University

Previous researches on understanding higher order brain functioning based on music as a main effect, have been explored a possible relationship between the area of a brain that stimulated by music and the same area that controls spatial reasoning, and this spatial reasoning also has been found to be connected directly to both science and mathematics ability (Graziano, Peterson & Shaw, 1999; Leng & Shaw, 1991; Rauscher & Zupan, 2000 cited in Babo, 2004). Consequently, assuming that, the relationship between music and academic achievement has been speculated by Phillips (1976), and Grandin & Peterson (1998 cited in Babo, 2004). While the policy makers of the United States were concerned about the survival of music as an educational program in school curriculum due to limited resources, this trend of studies has better proved the worth of music program, and was warranted. Theoretical Context

Some studies suggest both significant (Berlin, 1995; Cheek & Smith, 1998; Dreyden, 1992; Hill, 1987; Robitaille & O’Neal, 1981; Trent, 1996 cited in Bab0, 2004) and non-significant (Anello, 1972; Costa-Giomi, 1999 cited in Babo, 2004) positive correlation between instrumental music instruction and academic achievement. Anello (1974 cited in Babo, 2004) found a significant difference in Math, English, and Social Studies Grade Point Averages (GPAs) between instrumental and non-instrumental music students using analysis of variance (ANOVA), and when another variable ‘Intelligence’ was controlled through analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), no significant difference was found between them.

Also, Daryl Trent (1996 cited in Babo, 2004) included two instruments to collect students’ academic achievement data for analyses, namely, Texas Assessment of Academic Skills (TAAS), and Texas Educational Assessment of Minimum Skills (TEAMAS). A one-way ANOVA revealed that there were significant differences in Math and Language Arts scores on the TEAMAS between the senior music students and non-music students, however, results on TAAS indicated no significant differences between the subjects.

The author (Babo, 2004) felt that the general nature of the relationship between instrumental music and academic achievement needs to be resolved as well as using a statistical design that allows for controlling demographic and confounding variables, and thus, he attempted to explore the relationship between instrumental music and academic achievement controlling for some demographic variables like sex and socio-economic status, and other confounding variable like intelligence based on the research of Anello (1972), Costa-Giomi (1999), Trent (1996), Zanutto (1997), and the neurological theory of Leng & Shaw (1991 cited in Bab0, 2004). The selection of these variables was based on the previous research, and is a reflection of the related literature. Methodology

The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between instrumental music instruction and academic achievement by considering some other control and confounding variables. “The research question posed was- What is the nature and strength of the relationship between instrumental music participation and a student’s academic performance, when controlling for socio-economic status (SES), gender (GEN), and intelligent quotient (I.Q.), as measured by standardized assessment scores” (Babo, 2004)? To address this research question, a correlational research design was utilized because, the purpose of the study was to measure the relationship the instrumental music and the academic performance not to figure out the significant difference between the participant and non-participant groups of instrumental music education....
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