ART TECHNIQUE REPORT
Charcoal is perhaps the oldest artistic medium, dating from the time of the caveman. Charcoal is used in art for drawing, making rough sketches in painting and is one of the possible media for making a parsemage. Charcoal drawings often begin with a pencil drawing. The charcoal is layered in, blended with a stump and final details are added. Once completed, it is usually preserved by the application of a fixative. Artists generally utilize charcoal in three forms: Vine charcoal is created by burning sticks of wood (usually willow or linden/Tilia) into soft, medium, and hard consistencies. Compressed charcoal charcoal powder mixed with gum binder compressed into round or square sticks. The amount of binder determines the hardness of the stick. Compressed charcoal is used in charcoal pencils. Powdered charcoal is often used to "tone" or cover large sections of a drawing surface. Drawing over the toned areas will darken it further, but the artist can also lighten (or completely erase) within the toned area to create lighter tones. As with anything there are pros and cons for using charcoal as an art medium. The positive side to using charcoal is that the required tools are cheap to buy and drawings which are large and contain high contrast are spectacular. In addition, drawing in charcoal can be stopped and started with no problems and corrections are usually easy to make. The negative side to using charcoal is that details are slightly difficult to do, can be messy, light tones can be tricky and charcoal is not usually considered a fine art medium. Georgia O'Keeffe was an American abstract painter born in Wisconsin. O'Keeffe painted still life, massive flowers, the New York at Night Series, Southwestern landscapes and stark bones found in the desert. In the fall of 1915, O'Keeffe used her free time to experiment with charcoal and drew abstract shapes while she struggled to find her own style. Her early works...
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