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Egyptian Architecture

It is as difficult to condense in one short chapter the sequence of architectural history in Egypt as it is impossible to over-estimate the interest that it offers to artists and historians. For there is not one period in History that is not richly represented here by characteristic and wonderful monuments. --In order to refrain from becoming absorbed by one or other of those periods, we will arrange the monuments under six chronological headings: The Pharaonic Times. 

The Graeco-Roman and Coptic Period. 
Early Islamic Builders. 
The Mameluk Empire. 
The Ottoman Rule. 
Mohamed Aly and his dynasty.
Each of these six periods has produced enough to deserve a volume to itself.

THE PHARAONIC TIMES. The Pharaonic period, which covers 3,000 years and comprises no less than thirty dynasties of rulers, is that which has excited most general interest and has been most deeply studied by savants of all nations. But the great importance of it consists more in the historical records yielded by the reading of hieroglyphics and in the representative arts, Sculpture and Painting, than in Architecture properly so-called. It would seem that wood was used extensively in early buildings. At Saqqara, near Cairo, where impressive stone ruins have been found, going as far back as the IIIrd Dynasty (c. 2900 B.C.) some very remarkable imitations of wooden architectural details are to be seen in stone. The ancient Egyptians accomplished marvellous feats in the handling of stupendous materials, but the developments brought about by the use of the arch and the vault remained unknown to them. It is true that some very small examples of brick vaulting have been found, also dating back as far as the IIIrd Dynasty, but it does not seem to have occurred to the builders to make use of that principle in order to enable them to place their columns further apart; most hypo style halls of Ancient Egyptian temples suffer from the crowded aspect which results from columns standing too close to each other. 

Greek Architecture and sculpture

The Parthenon (Greek: Παρθενών) is a temple on the Athenian Acropolis, Greece, dedicated to the maiden goddess Athena, whom the people of Athens considered their patron. Its construction began in 447 BC when the Athenian Empire was at the height of its power. It was completed in 438 BC, although decoration of the building continued until 432 BC. It is the most important surviving building of Classical Greece, generally considered the culmination of the development of the Doric order. Its decorative sculptures are considered some of the high points of Greek art. The Parthenon is regarded as an enduring symbol of Ancient Greece, Athenian democracy, western civilization and one of the world's greatest cultural monuments. The Greek Ministry of Culture is currently carrying out a program of selective restoration and reconstruction to ensure the stability of the partially ruined structure.

The Temple of Hephaestus, also known as the Hephaisteion or earlier as the Theseion, is a well-preserved Greek temple; it remains standing largely as built. It is a Doric peripteral temple, and is located at the north-west side of the Agora of Athens, on top of the Agoraios Kolonos hill. From the 7th century until 1834, it served as the Greek Orthodox church of St. George Akamates.

The Victorious Youth, referred to in Italian sources as the Atleta di Fano, is a Greek bronze sculpture, made between 300 and 100 BCE, in the collections of the J. Paul Getty Museum, Malibu, California. On its first rediscovery Bernard Ashmole and other scholars attributed it to Lysippos, a grand name in the history of Greek art; modern concerns are less with such traditional attributions than with the original social context: where the sculpture was made, for what context and who he might be.

The Artemision Bronze (often called the God from the Sea) is an ancient Greek sculpture that was recovered from the sea off Cape...
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