World History Chapter 2 Cornell Notes

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Nile riverLongest river in world.
Supplied life-giving water for the Egyptians civilization.
Had an annual cycle of moth long flooding. Hard for farmers but then
solved by irrigation and pre- harvesting.

Steps toward civilization.Hunter-gatherer groups moved in and formed farming settlements.
Neolithic culture developed in 6000 BC
Mined to make jewelry
Discovered how to make bronze and glaze pottery.
3000 BC develops hieroglyphics
1798 AD French army invades and decodes hieroglyphics.
Menes, king of upper Egypt , founded a dynasty

Old kingdom2680 BC -2180 BC
had social status: upper class/ lower class

Middle kingdom2050 BC-1650 BC
foreigners (Hyskos) arrived introducing chariots, and bows.
Manetho states eastern people invaded Egypt , destroyed cities, murdered
Egyptians, and enslaved women and children.
Some historians disagree.
The Hyskos ruled lower Egypt for 100+ years.

New kingdom1570 BC-1080 BC
Pharaohs had power again, created an empire
One pharaoh was a woman who ruled with her stepson.
Another named Amenhotep IV tried to bring religious changed and told
everyone to believe in monotheism.
Rule of Egypt came to end by 300s BC when Assyrians, Nubians, and
Persians attacked.

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Architecture and art of Egyptians built pyramids, statues, buildings, and tools. egyptThey built the Great Sphinx.
Decorated buildings with paintings.

Science, math, and medicineDeveloped calendars based on stars.
Used a number system of one to ten.
Used fractions and whole numbers.
Used geometry to build pyramids.
Treated illnesses
Preserved bodies after death
Used herbs, medicine, and “magic spells.”

Education and religionDeveloped an educational system with scribes
Amon= the creator
Osiris =afterlife
Isis= Osiris wife and goddess of the royal throne.
People believed the heart would tell whether you were a good or bad
person, and that in order to have an afterlife you needed to be mummified.

Society and economyWomen were equal to men
Peasants did most of the farming (wheat, barley, flax, cotton, etc)
They could keep some of their materials, but the rest went to the pharaoh.
Since the peasants grew more than what was needed the Egyptians traded
with other parts of Africa and Asia.

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Southwest AsiaTwo major rivers called Tigris and Euphrates.
They overflow often, but carry rich soil.
Neolithic people called Sumerians settled in the Tigris and Euphrates area and
grew crops.

Sumerian technologyEgyptians used hieroglyphics. Sumerians used cuneiform, symbols pressed and archectureonto clay tablets with a wedge shaped tool called a stylus.
Built arches when making buildings
Temples called ziggurats looked like a wedding cake, were about 150’ and
the top served as a shrine to a Sumerian god.

Inventionsinvented system of time based on 60.(60 minutes, 60 seconds, 360*
had social status (high class, middle class, low class.)

Farminggrew grains, flax, and vegetables and domesticated animals
grew enough food for trade

Education and religionOnly upper class and boys went to school. Girls weren’t equal to boys.
students learned how to write spell, and draw.
Believed in many gods
Did not believe in afterlife.

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The AkkadiansConquered...
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