Essay Topics: 4. According to Paul Cezanne: “Art is as harmony Parallel to Nature.” Discuss with reference to Cubism.
“The history of Cubism consists chiefly of the ongoing battle between the two dimensional plane and three-dimensional nature, between the artists painting construction and the emotional contact with nature.” Jacob Bendien (1890- 1933)
Cubism was a powerful influent in the visual arts style of the 20th century, in the modern art period. This movement was specifically established by the painters Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque in Paris between 1907 and 1914. The Cubist style spotlights the ‘flat, two-dimensional surface of the picture plane, rejecting the traditional techniques of perspective, foreshortening, modeling, and chiaroscuro and refuting time-honored theories of art as the imitation of nature.’ Although Picasso and Braque were the first two main artists to create Cubism, critics cannot exclude Paul Cezanne, the initial origin source who drove the art world into the cubist world. Modernism was born in the 1960’s, after Renaissance and Romanticism, with Manet’s Luncheon on the Grass and Olympia. The Impressionist 1870’s and Post-Impressionist 1880’s and 90’s are modern paintings disobedient adolescence. And Paul Cezanne, who was working in this time frame, brings Impressionism to high development of opening a new era. He wanted more than the quick impressions of the Impressionists and devoted himself to studying the natural world. While he was working far from Paris in an isolation area of Aix-en Provence, as a revolutionary, he gave painters a task to ask the most fundamental question about the nature of their art. Instead of following the traditional motifs of art, letting them go deep into the roots of they’re painting and revolutionize it. Cezanne did the same with his art works, opening painting to essential questions. This was held not by writing a public declaration of intentions and initiating disciples and aesthetic statements, but by leaving his works radically open. It was open to everything, every contradictory tendency in his art. The crucial qualities of both opposing tendencies are a combination of never-to-be-completed and never-to-be-fully-comprehended beauty of the work. As a pioneer and forerunner of modern art Paul Cezanne once wrote: “Art is a harmony parallel to nature,”. This holds a meaning of art is neither an imitation of nature nor a complete distinction from it. It may be something close related to each other but as a detached thing. Cezanne sets out to establish a distinct aesthetic harmony that is true to the motif, a synthesis of nature, which comes before his eyes and some undefined pictorial idea in his set of mind. The concept must be ambiguous or even indescribable at the beginning, because the role of painting is the action that brings this harmony into being. Harmony can be observed when the ultimate finishing last brushstroke is applied onto the canvas. Cezanne wouldn’t know his goal until the gains it. This is the reason the Symbolists called Cezanne, first to come up with the idea, as a “pure painter.” Relating to the idea of not reproducing nature by itself, but research about it and gain more logical information to interpret it in Cezanne’s own way. This brought a phenomenon effect toward Cubism movement inclusively. Playing upon stressing on Cezanne’s use of color, the pattern aspect of his work, form, and space, they minimized the outstanding relevance to Cezanne of rendering three-dimensional nature. It seemed like the symbolist perception was opposed to Emile Zola, Cezanne’s boyhood friend and Aiz School mate who gave a big influence to him towards art. An interpretation view that Cezanne’s personal, detached, abstracting view of nature was unrealized. Unlike the Cubist fifteen to twenty years onwards, they did not understand the ways of viewing in several different perspectives. The variation of perspective space as an “outgrowth of his...
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