odUS History Review Test 18 The Rise of Industrial America, 1865 - 1900 1. The World’s Columbian Exposition in 1892 was [A] a meeting held in the District of Columbia to expose industrial working conditions. [B] the Chicago World’s Fair. [C] a summit conference of North and South American governments held in Colombia to promote industrial development in the Americas. [D] the first international labor relations conference held at Columbia University in New York City. [E] the meeting held in Chicago by the leaders of the major industrial unions, to find a method of cooperating in the struggle against big corporations. 2. The Interstate Commerce Commission was established to [A] investigate and oversee railroad activities. [B] encourage Americans not to buy imported goods. [C] control fluctuations in the international grain market. [D] encourage interstate cooperation in commercial ventures. [E] regulate the disruptive activities of industrial unions. 3. Which of the following statements about the period from 1860 to 1900 is not true? [A] The number of persons engaged in manufacturing quadrupled. [B] Manufacturing output soared. [C] Innovative advertising and marketing techniques were created. [D] Boom-bust business cycles produced two major depressions. [E] U.S. textile and iron production tapered off. 4. Which of the following was characteristic of modern industrial America after the Civil War? [A] exploitation of immense coal deposits as a source of cheap energy [B] the rapid spread of technological innovation and the factory system [C] a drop in price levels and a rise in interest rates [D] the impulse to drive rivals out of business and consolidate monopolistic power [E] all of these 5. The use of technology in industry in the second half of the nineteenth century [A] made it possible for manufacturers to hire cheap unskilled or semiskilled labor. [B] made it possible for manufacturers to eliminate human labor power altogether. [C] required a better-educated work force. [D] was primarily the hallmark of giant corporations. [E] allowed traditional craftsmen and artisans to maintain their dominance over production. 6. What was one of the ways in which railroad companies pioneered in large-scale corporate enterprise? [A] the issuance of stock to meet their huge capital needs [B] the merger of ownership and management [C] the drive to automate and mechanize [D] none of these
7. In 1900 U.S. railroads [A] had collapsed because of underuse and lack of maintenance. [B] were so profitable that the federal government borrowed vast sums of money from them. [C] were largely financed by a handful of elite, wealthy families. [D] had a combined debt that was five times that of the federal government. [E] had finally broken even financially after decades of start-up costs. 8. At the end of the Civil War, what communications system did the railroads use to coordinate their complex flow of rail cars? [A] the newly invented telephone [B] the Pony Express [C] the telegraph [D] There was no communications system to coordinate rail travel. [E] A, B, and C. 9. Which of the following statements accurately reflects the differences between single working-class women and married working-class women in the nineteenth century? [A] Married women commonly worked under sweatshop conditions within the tenements, whereas single women often viewed outside work as an opportunity. [B] Married women worked in cigar factories, whereas single women did needlework at home. [C] Married women were able to work in factories because of the large number of unmarried women available to provide childcare. [D] Married women had the assistance of their husbands at home and in the factory, while single women accepted an ideology of domesticity based on the idea of separate spheres. [E] Married women commonly hired maids and cooks to ease the burden of their work at home, whereas single women usually did most of the work themselves. 10. Andrew Carnegie borrowed...
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