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The Shaping of North America

225 million years ago-Pangaea “supercontinent”
10 million years ago-Rocky Mountains exist
Appalachians exist
Continents are separated
2 million years ago- an Ice Age envelopes the planet and the water level lowers 35 000 years ago-the Bering Land Bridge appears
animals cross, followed by nomadic Asian hunters
10 000 years ago-the Ice Age ends
nomadic people create civilization
By1492 AD, the population grows to 72 million
*only 7-10 million live in North America (South America has better conditions for farming)

Powerful Civilizations
* Aztecs
* Incas
* Mayans
* Iroquois
* Over 2000 languages created
* Religion
* Culture
* Farming techniques

People who came to America before 1492:
-Scandinavians
led by Leif Erickson (Newfoundland)
-Nomadic Asian hunters
-Irish
-Africans
-Chinese

[1492] Columbus “discovered” the New World (arrived at Hispañola/ Haiti/ Santo Domingo)
brought 20 people back-only two survive the ship ride
was sent to get more for slavery in mines (creates slavery)
Europeans bring smallpox into the Americas
[1492] Haiti’s population totals 3 million
[1512] Haiti’s population totals 12 000

Columbus’s “discovery” affects the futures of three groups:
Europeans – migrate to the Americas
Native Americans – dealt with harshly
Africans – source of labor leads to mass enslaving

Explorers

Amerigo Vespucci [sails for Spain in 1499] [sails for Portugal in 1501]
Writes vivid accounts of the East coast of North and South America
Mapmakers base their maps on his accounts – hence “America”

Vasco Nunez de Balboa [sails for Spain in 1513]
First European to set eyes on the Pacific Ocean
Says “All land that touches the Pacific is Spain’s”
Basis for Spanish claims in America

Ferdinand Magellan [sails for Spain from 1519-1522]
First to circumnavigate the globe

Hernando Cortez [sails for Spain in 1519]
Crushes the Aztecs (attack and smallpox)
Claims Mexico for Spain

Pizarro
Defeated the Incans

Ponce de Léon [sails for Spain in 1513]
Explores Florida – lays claim of Florida for Spain
Looking for gold, fountain of youth

Francisco Coronado [sails for Spain in 1540]
Searches for the fabled “cities of gold”
First European to see the Grand Canyon
First European to see herds of buffalo

John Cabot [sails for England in 1497]
Italian – explores the East coast of New England
Basis for English claims in the Americas

Giovanni de Verrazano [sails for France in 1524]
Bay of New York and areas of NYC

Henry Hudson [sails for the Dutch in 1608?]
Hudson Bay and Hudson River
Claims Manhattan for the Dutch

Jacques Cartier [sails for France in 1534]
Explores parts of Canada and claims area for France

Hernando de Soto [sails for Spain from 1539-1542]
First European to see the Mississippi River
Settling the New World

Spain
Reasons for exploration:
Gold
Glory
God
Goods
Lay claim to:
New Mexico
West coast of South America
Florida
All of Central America
Texas
Arizona
California

[1565] settled the first permanently occupied settlement in the Americas
-St. Augustine, FL
[1610] Santa Fe
[1588] Spanish Armada is defeated – marks the decline of the Spanish Empire

Encomienda system and hacienda system – places Native Americans in state of slavery

France
Lay claim to:
Canada
Areas around the Mississippi

[1608] First French settlement – Quebec “New France”- Samuel de Champlain [1750] <60 000 people live in New France

Why won’t people live in New France?
1. Poor farmland
2. Isolated
3. Subject to Native American attacks
4. only French Catholics allowed
5. keep the discontented in France

England
[1558] Elizabeth I comes to the throne of England
wants to expand the navy
1. Spread Protestantism
2. Plunder and attack Spanish ships...
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