Jamal Sanchez Bush
June 21, 2011
Crime prevention has influenced by so many fields like sociology, psychology, criminology, urban planning and design, health care, education, community development, economics & social work, among the others. This paper focuses on the dominant approaches to crime prevention which is currently used by law enforcement, courts, and corrections. The dominant approaches to crime prevention are situational, social development, community crime prevention, and community policing.
Dominant approaches to crime prevention
Situational – The interventions designed for reducing the opportunity for the crime for occurring in specific time & place which are social and environmental (Clarke, New York)
Social Developmental – The interventions designed for preventing the development of the criminal potential in the individuals like targeting at risk children & youth
Community – It is modifying or strengthening the behavior of the residents, mobilizing the residents for informally regulating the environment like community development
Policing – The community policing which has increased the relations with the community & problem oriented policing which address the causes of the crime and disorder problems (Braga, 2008)
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Comparing & Contrasting of Situational, Social Developmental, Community and Policing Approaches
The situational prevention isn’t conceptually new. The persons have presumably always responded to perceive the risks after altering the behaviour for reducing risks. The windows shuttered, doors get locked, dogs purchased & alarm system installed in regard to make the intending the malefactor's work much difficult. The merchants likewise have presumably always contemplated economic tradeoffs between the easier consumers access for merchandising & heightened the risks of the theft & have reduced the access when that seemed economically rational things for doing (Farrington).
Different about the situational crime prevention is systematic strategic effort of last decade for developing & testing the situational techniques & widespread increasingly recognition that situational approaches may complement the law enforcement approach.
Various situational initiatives seem for having achieved net preventive effects, both directly & indirectly via diffusion of the benefits for adjoining the areas which didn’t experience new initiative but were aware of this. Convincing the evidence is available of the net preventive effects even after the displacement of different types is taken into account.
The communities have the crime rates & sometimes these are independent of changing composition over the time of resident population. Put other way around, either individual’s commit crimes mostly is related probabilistically to where they live. It is key insight on which the community crime prevention is premised like changing community can change behaviour of persons who live there (Schneider, 2009). Community crime prevention included the efforts for controlling the crime after altering building & the neighbourhood design for increasing the natural surveillance & the guardianship, after improving physical appearance of the areas, by organizing the community residents...