1. Various components of a GIS system
A GIS can be divided into five components: People, Data, Hardware, Software, and Procedures. No one part can run without the other. People: Is the component that actually makes the GIS work. Which include an excess of positions like GIS managers, database administrators, application specialists e.t.c Data: most time consuming and costly aspect of initiating a GIS is creating a database, the operation of GIS depends wholly on availability of data’s. E.g. spatial data or attribute data. Hardware: consists of the physical technical equipment needed to run a GIS and this includes a computer system and input and output devices such as scanners, digitizers, GPS data loggers, and printers. Software: There are many different GIS software packages available. All packages must be capable of data input, storage, management, transformation, analysis, and output. Procedures: include how the data will be retrieved, input into the system, stored, managed, transformed, analyzed, and finally presented in a final output. 2. In ArcCatalog
1. Select a folder in the Catalog tree.
2. Click the File menu, point to New, and click Shapefile. 3. Click in the Name text box and type a name for the new shapefile. 4. Click the Feature Type dropdown arrow and click the type of feature the shape file will contain. (Point, polyline, and polygon). 5. Click Edit to define the shapefile's coordinate system. 6. Select, import, or define a new coordinate system, then click OK. 7. If the shape file will store polylines representing routes, check Coordinates will contain M values. 8. If the shapefile will store three-dimensional features, check Coordinates will contain Z values. 9. Click OK. The new shapefile appears in the folder's contents. 3. Application of GIS to transport planning include:
a. GIS technologies can provide a visual framework for conceptualizing and understanding...