1. Various components of a GIS system
A GIS can be divided into five components: People, Data, Hardware, Software, and Procedures. No one part can run without the other. People: Is the component that actually makes the GIS work. Which include an excess of positions like GIS managers, database administrators, application specialists e.t.c Data: most time consuming and costly aspect of initiating a GIS is creating a database, the operation of GIS depends wholly on availability of data’s. E.g. spatial data or attribute data. Hardware: consists of the physical technical equipment needed to run a GIS and this includes a computer system and input and output devices such as scanners, digitizers, GPS data loggers, and printers. Software: There are many different GIS software packages available. All packages must be capable of data input, storage, management, transformation, analysis, and output. Procedures: include how the data will be retrieved, input into the system, stored, managed, transformed, analyzed, and finally presented in a final output. 2. In ArcCatalog
1. Select a folder in the Catalog tree.
2. Click the File menu, point to New, and click Shapefile. 3. Click in the Name text box and type a name for the new shapefile. 4. Click the Feature Type dropdown arrow and click the type of feature the shape file will contain. (Point, polyline, and polygon). 5. Click Edit to define the shapefile's coordinate system. 6. Select, import, or define a new coordinate system, then click OK. 7. If the shape file will store polylines representing routes, check Coordinates will contain M values. 8. If the shapefile will store three-dimensional features, check Coordinates will contain Z values. 9. Click OK. The new shapefile appears in the folder's contents. 3. Application of GIS to transport planning include:
a. GIS technologies can provide a visual framework for conceptualizing and understanding how transportation contributes to a region GHG (green house gas) emissions profile. This ability could help lead transport planners to develop more effective GHG reduction policies. b. GIS application helps the transport planners in highway mapping; It aids the planner by the use of GPS. 4. Major factors to consider when carrying out a CBA on transport project: Benefits
The benefits of transportation projects are commonly defined as reductions in transportation costs. However, on this website, benefits are defined as all of the effects of the project/program on its users or the society at large, even those effects that are negative (sometimes referred to as disbenefits). Benefits and disbenefits are measurable and have economic value. These are the benefits most commonly considered in benefit-cost analysis of transportation projects: Travel time or delay reductions: The Value of Travel Time (VTT) refers to the cost of time spent on transport. It includes costs to businesses of the time their employees and vehicles spend on travel, and costs to consumers of personal (unpaid) time spent on travel. The Value of Travel Time Savings (VTTS) refers to the benefits from reduced travel time costs. Travel time savings is often the principal benefit of a transportation project. Congestion relief projects are justified primarily by the reduction in travel time they will bring about. Travel time savings can also lead to reductions in vehicle operating costs. Vehicle cost savings: Changes in the costs of owning and operating vehicles (trucks as well as cars) resulting from a transportation improvement project are counted as benefits or disbenefits. Accident reductions (safety): A change in traffic accident (also called crash or collision) rates that results from a transportation project has an economic value. E.g. A railroad crossing is moved above grade, eliminating conflicts between trains and pedestrian and vehicle traffic...