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HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX (HDI)
What is the human development index (HDI)?
The HDI—human development index—is a summary composite index that measures a country's average achievements in three basic aspects of human development: longevity, knowledge, and a decent standard of living. Longevity is measured by life expectancy at birth; knowledge is measured by a combination of the adult literacy rate and the combined primary, secondary, and tertiary gross enrolment ratio; and standard of living by GDP per capita (PPP US$). For details on how to calculate the HDI, see pages 340–1 Technical Note 1. What is the gender-related development index (GDI)?

The GDI—gender-related development index—is a composite indicator that measures the average achievement of a population in the same dimensions as the HDI while adjusting for gender inequalities in the level of achievement in the three basic aspects of human development. It uses the same variables as the HDI, disaggregated by gender. For details on how to calculate the GDI see pages 340, 343-344 and 346 Technical Note 1. What is the gender empowerment measure (GEM)?

The GEM— gender empowerment measure—is a composite indicator that captures gender inequality in three key areas: • political participation and decision-making, as measured by women’s and men’s percentage shares of parliamentary seats; • economic participation and decision-making power, as measured by two indicators—women’s and men’s percentage shares of positions as legislators, senior officials and managers and women’s and men’s percentage shares of professional and technical positions; • power over economic resources, as measured by women’s and men’s estimated earned income (PPP US$).

For details on how to calculate the GEM see pages 340, and 345–6 Technical Note 1. How are the GDI and the GEM used?
To draw attention to gender issues. The GDI adjusts the HDI for inequalities in the achievement of men and women. A comparison of a...
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