April 29, 2013
Professor: Jacqueline A. Ascione
Research Paper: Apartheid
During the nineteenth century, South Africa became almost entirely colonized by Europeans. South Africa was highly populated by the Europeans because; South Africa contained an abundant supply of natural resources including land for farming, and mineral resources such as mines. These mines consisted of diamonds, gold and platinum. Europeans recognized the abundance of wealth South Africa had to offer and took full advantage of the opportunities. Once these Europeans, also known as Afrikaners, settled in South Africa, they drove many South Africans out of their homes and enforced the rule of Apartheid, creating a separation in society between the Afrikaners and South Africans. In Afrikaans, it stands for apartness. Along with separating the whites from the non-whites, it separated the blacks from everyone else, including coloreds. The main goal of apartheid was to maintain the amount of blacks in government less is more it was set out to insure that whites would remain in power over the blacks.
The Apartheid was an experience that left thousands of Black/Colored South Africans without rights, property, and even their lives. Although original in its name, the ideas were not original in itself. The ordeal dates back to 1652 when the early Dutch settlers moved into Black territory on a mission to "change the order of civilization"( Rotberg, R. I. (2002). Ending Autocracy, Enabling Democracy. Cambridge: World Peace Foundation. ). "Boers" (Rotberg) as Dutch called themselves, took up "an extreme fundamentalist Calvinist interpretation of religion" (Rotberg). In 1795, conflict arose between the English Settlers and the Dutch settlers; both groups empowered South Africa and did not share the power equally. In the early 1900s there was a heated battle over the discovery of diamonds which marked a victory for the Dutch (Rotberg). Black South Africans assisted the Dutch in winning this war. After the war the Dutch felt they needed to reform stricter prohibitions for the Blacks to follow. This resulted in separation of the Whites from the Non-Whites and the first stepping stone to the Apartheid. British Native Administrator said, "…it was needed to transform warriors (Blacks) into laborers working for wages"( Dugard, J., Nicholas, H., & Gilbert, M. (1992). The Last Years of Apartheid: Civil Liberties in South Africa. United States: Ford Foundation. ).Blacks were considered warriors because of their "battle with the British and Dutch" (Dugard, Haysom, and Marcus). The Dutch soon became known as the Afrikaner National Party. This effectively separated themselves from the English and the Black/Colored South Africans and also ensured social and economic dominance over the Black/Colored South Africans. In 1948 the Afrikaner National Party of South Africa constructed the Apartheid which cast racial and economic discrimination against all Non-White South Africans which eventually led to a reform in 1994.
The National Party was founded by General J.B.M. Hertzog, a leader in a leader in the war against the English. General Hertzog felt the "dominance of the European population in a spirit of Christian trusteeship, with the strictest avoidance of any attempt at race mixture" (Rotberg). The National Party made sure that Black South Africans didn’t dictate in anyway, they started by racially separating. People were categorized by color, The Population Act, helped The National Party divide the Non-Whites which was used to divide them into three main categories: Whites, black (African), and Colored (persons of mixed descent) (Dugard, Haysom, and Marcus). Appearance, social acceptance, and descent were the criteria used to determine a person's racial identity (Dugard, Haysom, and Marcus). Whites were obviously white because they appeared white and Blacks "who is, or generally accepted as, member of any aboriginal race or tribe of Africa" were obviously...