Annexation: Incorporation of a territory into another geo-political entity. Antarctica: Southernmost continent in the world. It has no permanent residents and doesn't belong to any country. Apartheid: Afrikaans for apartness, it was the segregation of blacks in South Africa from 1948 to 1994. It was created to keep the white minority in power and allow them to have almost total control over the black majority. Balkanization: The political term used when referring to the fragmentation or breakup of a region or country into smaller regions or countries. The term comes from the Balkan wars, where the country of Yugoslavia was broken up in to six countries between 1989 and 1992. It was the effect of the Balkan wars. Buffer state: A country lying between two more powerful countries that are hostile to each other. An example is Mongolia, which serves as a buffer between Russia and China. Capital: Principle city in a state or country. The best place to locate a capital is at the center of a country, so it is a somewhat equal distance from all parts of the country. City-state: A region controlled by a city and that has sovereignty. They were more common in the middle ages and Renaissance in Europe. Confederation: association of sovereign states by a treaty or agreement. It deals with issues such as defense, foreign affairs, trade, and a common currency. Conference of Berlin: Regulated trade and colonization in Africa. It formalized the scramble to gain colonies in Africa and set up boundaries for each country’s colonies. Decolonization: Decolonization is the movement of American/European colonies gaining independence. Some were peaceful struggles while others became violent. Domino theory: Domino theory is the idea that if one land in a region came under the influence of Communists, then more would follow in a domino effect. The domino theory was used by successive United States administrations during the Cold War, to justify American...
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