This guide includes general rules and selected examples of in-text citations and References following the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed., c2010) guidelines. For information on manuscript structure and content, writing mechanics, and other aspects of the publication process, please consult the APA manual. Copies of the APA manual can be found in REF, at RESD, and on the 4th floor under BF76.7.P82 2009. Additional examples can be found at the APA Style web site (www.apastyle.org). Also check out the Citation Styles & Tools guide for additional online guides from other institutions. University of Maryland University College has a very informative webpage on APA Style with 2 tutorials that are particularly useful at explaining; 1) in-text citations and the reference list, 2) citing with and without a DOI. http://umuc.edu/library/citationguides.shtml Noodlebib and EndNote Web are online citation management tools that include APA 6th formatting.
In-text Citations - general rules
APA is an author-date citation system; if no author is given, then the title or a shortened form of the title is used instead. Author, date, and page numbers are separated by commas and included in parentheses. Each citation in the text must have a corresponding entry in the Reference list. Locate the citation immediately after the quoted or paraphrased material. See example under A Work with One Author below. For quoted or paraphrased material include the page (p. or pp.) or paragraph numbers (para.), if available. If there are no paragraph or page numbers but there are section headings, cite the heading and the number of the paragraph following it. Example (Smith, 2007, Discussion section, para. 1). If the quote is less than 40 words, include it within the text in quotation marks followed by the citation; if it is more than 40 words, create a separate block of text, without quotation marks, and indent the block half an inch from the left margin, followed by the citation.
Four Types of Materials that are Cited Only in the Text and Not in the Reference List Classical works such as the Bible and the Qur‟an which have standardized sections across editions. Entire websites, when referred to in their broadest sense, need only have the URL included in the text. Example: Gifts of Speech (http://gos.sbc.edu/) is preserving women‟s speeches from around the world. If a specific speech or page on the web site is referenced, follow regular APA rules. Personal communications that are not archived or recoverable, such as e-mails, personal interviews, private letters or memos, telephone conversations, etc. need only appear in the text with the date and type of communication. Example: J. P. Smith (personal communication, August 24, 2009) or (J. P. Smith, personal communication, August 24, 2009). If the e-mail or message is archived, such as on a discussion group or electronic bulletin board, follow APA guidelines for Archived Documents.
Tables and charts have their complete citation located directly below their placement in the text. No additional listing is needed in the Reference list.
In-text Citations – Examples
If the author is named as part of the sentence do not repeat it in the parentheses. Include just the date or
date and page/paragraph as needed. A Work with One Author – use surname but do not include suffix (such as Jr.) or professional titles (such as MD) As Resnick (1997) described in her adventure, the people of South Africa are “committed to the future” (p.351). The people of South Africa are “committed to the future” (Resnick, 1997, p. 351).
A Work with Two Authors - use both names each time the reference is cited; use & instead of „and‟ in the parenthetical citation, but do not substitute in the sentence. Smith and Jones (2005) found … As the research shows (Smith & Jones, 2005) …
A Work with 3, 4, or 5 Authors – use all authors for the first...