History The study of past events and changes in the development, transmission, and transformation of cultural practices. Earliest Farming LocationFertile crescent
Swidden Agriculturea place temporarily cleared for agriculture by cutting back and burning off previous growth Catal Huyukearly urban culture based on sedentary agriculture Mesopotamia"between the rivers"; civilizations that arose between the Tigris-Euphrates river valleys Hyksosa member of an ancient nomadic people from western Asia, probably of Semitic ancestry, who conquered and ruled Egypt between 1720 bc and 1560 bc Hittitesa member of an ancient Anatolian people whose empire was based in Asia Minor during the second millennium bc SargonSargon the Great was an Akkadian emperor famous for his conquest of the Sumerian city-states in the 23rd and 22nd centuries BC. The founder of the Dynasty of Akkad, Sargon reigned from 2270 to 2215 BC Hammurabimost important ruler of the Babylonian empire; responsible for codification of law
Anthropomorphicthe attribution of a human form, human characteristics, or human behavior to nonhuman things, e.g. deities in mythology and animals in children's stories Cuneiformform of writing developed by Sumerians using a stylus and tablets Harappamajor urban complex of Harappan civilization; along with Mohenjo-Daro Mohenjo- Daromajor urban complex of Harappan civilization
ShangThe Shang dynasty ruled parts of northern and central China. Its capital city was located at Anyang near the border of Henan from about 1384 BCE. This dynasty was based on agriculture. Ancestor WorshipWorship given to deceased relatives who are believed to be closer to the Gods, and therefore able to grant favors.
Mandate of HeavenThe Zhou Dynasties justification of rule by claiming that heaven would grant the Zhou power as long as they were just. Important for being the first involvement of divine right to rule, ConfucianismConfucius lived in China during the Chou Dynasty, when there was mass disorder and confusion and degrading moral standards. Confucius was appalled by what appeared to be the fracturing of Chinese society. He believed that the only cure was to stress a sense of social order and mutual respect, a philosophy that later became known as Confucianism. Confucianism teaches that there is a natural social order to society which can best be explained through the Five Relationships.
Warring States Periodthe period from about 475 BC to the unification of China under the Qin Dynasty in 221 BC
Yinthe principle of darkness, negativity, and femininity in Chinese philosophy that is the counterpart of yang. The dual, opposite, and complementary principles of yin and yang are thought to exist in varying proportions in all things. Yangin Chinese philosophy, the principle of light, heat, motivation, and masculinity that is the counterpart of yin and is thought to exist along with yin in all things. DaoismThe Chinese philosophy of Taoism (or Daoism) developed in the latter part of the Chou Dynasty, during a period of turmoil in which it was not clear that Chinese civilization would survive. It represents a naturalistic ideal of how one should live their life. The Chinese term Tao can be translated into English, meaning "the way." It is a philosophy which teaches that nature has a "way" in which it moves, and that people should passively accept the "way" of nature, rather than resist it.
Nubiaregion along the Nile, in northern Sudan and southern Egypt
Matrilinealdescribes the line of genealogical relationship or descent that follows the female side of a family Hunsa member of a nomadic people, probably originating in north central Asia, who invaded China in the 3rd century bc and then spread westward across Asia and into Europe. During the 4th century ad, under their leader Attila, they overran much of the Roman Empire. Akhenatena Pharaoh of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt, ruled for...