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1.Identify the ideology of kingship during China's Shang dynasty. How did it compare with that of the Zhou Dynasty? - Early China’s cities, Shang and Zhou, have very distinctive features in the ideology of kingship. In the Shang dynasty, the king and his administration were the controllers, where the king was the intermediary between the people and the gods. However, in the Zhou dynasty, the ruler was chosen by gods to justify power, and if he/she misbehaved or acted inappropriately, they would be kicked off the throne; this was called the Mandate of Heaven.

2.Describe the Hyksos' control of Egypt and the Egyptian response. How was the New Kingdom inaugurated? What were its major achievements? -If the Hyksos did not control Egypt for thirty years, Egypt would have never been as successful as they were after the Hyksos was expelled from the throne. During their control, Hyksos absorbed Egypt’s native ways, and maintained their institutions while also adopting their language. At the time, Egyptians viewed Hyksos’s as foreigners, and after three decades of fighting them off, Hyksos was expelled from Egypt by Kamos and Ahmos, and the New Kingdom of Egypt was born. During this era, the Egyptians extended their territory into Nubia. They gained timber, copper, gold, and wealth from taxes. They built a buffer zone to protect themselves against foreign attacks, and controlling Nubia spread the Egyptian language and culture from the support of local rulers.

3.Describe the rise of Nubia and its relationship with Egypt. Why was Nubia attracted to Egypt? What did it gain? -Because the Egyptians were trying to secure gold in Nubia, Nubia emerged with a complex civilization of political organization, social stratification, metallurgy, building, and writing. Egypt and Nubia obtained a peaceful relationship of various negotiations that led to Egypt expanding their territory to Nubia and controlling it. Nubia had a natural resource that was highly valued among...
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