Cigarette Smoking
Over the years, researchers have been trying to connect smoking to lung cancer. They have finally come to this conclusion and are now trying to link smoking to other coronary heart diseases. Research has been done in many countries, and the results have shown that there was a moderate relationship to cigarette consumption and heart diseases. Through a regression, it has been proven that there is a link to the two factors. The U.S is also trying to cut their consumption in half.

There is an association between the amount of cigarettes smoked and deaths from CHD. The association has a positive direction. This means as the amount of cigarettes smoked increases, so does the deaths from CHD. The association also has a linear from which means the two variables are related. It is also moderately strong. A linear regression is done next. Three conditions are checked to make sure the data is appropriate to be used. The variables are both quantitative. The scatter plot, Graph A, shows that the graph could be straight enough, and there may be an outlier but to continue with caution. Graph B, shows the line of best fit, and shows that the residuals are about equal on both sides. The model has a correlation of .731, which describes that it’s moderately strong. The line has an “r” squared of 53.4%. This means that the change in cigarette consumption accounts for 53.4% of the CHD deaths per 100,000The slope of line is .06. In context this means that, according to our model, as the cigarette consumption per adult per year increases by 1, the CHD death per 100,000 is expected to increase about .06. The y-intercept of the line is 15.64. This means in context that, according to our model when the deaths from CHD are at 0, the cigarette consumption is at 15.64. This means that is someone were to smoke about 16 cigarettes, the death rate would be a 0, which would be a good thing. The benefits of the U.S of reaching the “national goal” of cutting cigarette...

...5.1 / 5.2 Worksheet
AP Statistics
Name:
1. To gather data on a 1200-acre pine forest in Louisiana, the U.S. Forest Service laid a grid of 1410 equally
spaced circular plots over a map of the forest. A ground survey visited a sample of 10% of these plots.
Use the portion of Table B below to choose the first 2 plots. Explain you method clearly.
81486
69487
60513
09297
00412
71238
27649
39950
59636
88804
04634
71197
19352
73089
84898
45785
2. A medical study of heart surgery investigates the effect of a drug called a beta-blocker on the pulse rate of
the patient during surgery. The pulse rate will be measured at a specific point during the operation. The
investigators will use 20 patients facing heart surgery as subjects. You have a list of these patients,
numbered 1 to 20, in alphabetical order.
a. Describe the design of a completely randomized experiment to test the effect of beta-blockers on pulse
rate during surgery. Write a few sentences about how you would implement your design.
b. Use the section from the random digits table below to carry out the randomization required by your
design and report the result.
96746
96927
43909
15689
36759
Chapter 5
12149
19931
99477
14227
58984
37823
36809
25330
06565
68288
71868
74192
64359
14374
22913
18442
77567
40085
13352
18638
35119
88741
16925
49367
54303
62103
48409
85117
81982
00795
39244
41903
36071
87209
08727
3. Do cell phones turn teen drivers into senior citizens? A study done at...

...Statistics 5371 Final Exam Review Fall 2012.
1. Suppose a researcher wants to design a new study with a power of 0.8 and a significance of 0.05 to test whether the caffeine content for a brand of coffee is really 100mg. A previous study gave a mean caffeine level for this brand of 110 mg and a standard deviation of 7 mg. Use PROC POWER to determine how many cups of coffee need testing.
2. A company did a study to estimate the effect of different promotional strategies on the market share of one of their products. Over a period of 36 months they varied their promotional strategy. There are four strategies: Ordinary (standard pricing and advertising); Discount (price discount with standard advertising); Promotion (standard pricing, enhanced advertising); and Both (price discount with enhanced advertising). Each month one of the strategies was employed and the market share (the percentage of purchasers of the given product type that selected the company's product). Higher market share is better for the company. The table below records the number of months in which each strategy was used (n) and a summary of the market share results in those months.
|Strategy |Pricing |Advertising |n |mean |SD |
|Ordinary |standard |standard |8 |2.40 |0.12 |
|Discount |Discount...

...Descriptive Statistics
QNT/561
July 29, 2014
Descriptive Statistics
Job Satisfaction
Central Tendency: Mean=8.5 JDI
Dispersion: Standard Deviation=1.16 JDI
Number: 139
Min/Max: 7 to 10 JDI
Confidence Interval: 8.36 to 8.75 JDI
*JDI=Job Descriptive Index
Months of Employment
Central Tendency: Mean= 136.24 Months
Dispersion: Standard Deviation= 117.26 Months
Number: 139
Min/Max: 1 to 359 Months
Confidence Interval: 116.74 to 155.73 Months
Descriptive Statistics Interpretation
Interpretation
Months of Employment
CHJ made a decision to choose 139 random employees. Their months of employment varied between a range of 1 and 359 days the employees estimated months employed with the company was around their months of employment were 136 days, either adding or subtracting 28 days , Nearly half of counted to be 136 days. CHJ strongly believes a 95% population months of employment average is between 116 and 165 days.
Job satisfaction
CHJ carefully selected One hundred employees the range was between 7 and 10. Half of the employees choose 8.75 which meant they were satisfied with their job. The other employees who were surveyed choose 8.6 which mean they were satisfied but CHJ could do a little more improvements.
Appendix A
Raw data used in the analysis
Appendix B
Charts and Tables
Frequency of Male and Female Employees by Department
Legend: Blue=Males Red=Females
Appendix C...

...Tutorial Questions for Exploratory Data Analysis – Summary Statistics & Graphs
1. Customers of a particular bank rated the service provided by the bank on a scale of one to ten, correct to one decimal point. The bank categorised their customers as either (1) Private Account holders or (2) Business Account holders. The information below summarises customer attitudes towards the quality of service provided by the bank. Use the output to answer the questions below.
a) Briefly describe and compare the distributions of results for the two groups of customers. You should mention appropriate measures of centre and spread, and any other points you feel may be of interest.
b) The survey results were described as being symmetrically distributed. What does this mean, and what evidence is there below to support this claim?
c) The standard deviation of the ratings for the Private Account holders is 1.336. What does this value mean?
d) Verify the value of the standard error of the mean (SE Mean) for the Business Account holders.
e) Determine a 90% confidence interval for the true mean of the Business Account holders and interpret the result in the context of the situation.
Descriptive Statistics: Quality
Variable Use N N* Mean SE Mean StDev Minimum Q1 Median Q3
Quality 1 45 0 5.971 0.199 1.336 3.700 4.800 6.000 7.050
2 30 0 8.323 0.172 0.941 6.200 7.675 8.400 9.025
Variable Use...

...Definition of Statistics, Scope and importance of Statistics:Statistics in business and management: Frequency distribution: Parts of table:
Definition of Statistics:
1. Statistics can be defined as the collection presentation and interpretation of numerical data.- Croxton and Crowed.
2. Statistics are numerical statement of facts in any department of enquiry placed interrelation to each other.- Bouly.
3. Statistics are measurement, enumerations or estimates of natural or social phenomena systematically arrangement to exhibit their inner relation.- Conner.
4. By Statistics we mean quantitative data affected to a marked extend by a multiplicity of causes. – Youle and Kendal.
5. The science of Statistics is essentially a branch of applied mathematics and can be regarded as a mathematics applied to observation data.- R.A fisher.
Scope and importance of Statistics:
1. Statistics and planning: Statistics in indispensable into planning in the modern age which is termed as “the age of planning”. Almost all over the world the govt. are re-storing to planning for economic development.
2. Statistics and economics: Statistical data and techniques of statistical analysis have to immensely useful involving economical problem. Such as wages, price, time series analysis, demand analysis.
3. Statistics and business: Statistics is an irresponsible tool of production control. Business executive are relying more and more on statistical techniques for studying...

...1.1 For the following situation, indicate whether the statistical
application is primarily descriptive or inferential.
“The manager of Ann’s Fabric Shop has collected data for 10 years
on the number of each type of dress fabric that has been sold at the
store. She is interested in making a presentation that will illustrate
these data effectively.”
Suggested Answer:
This application is primarily descriptive in nature. The owner
wishes to develop a presentation. He will most likely use charts,
graphs, tables and numerical measures to describe his data.
1.2 Consider the following graph that appeared in a company
annual report. What type of graph is this is this? Explain
This is clearly a bar chart. A bar chart displays values associated
with categories. In this case the categories are the departments
at the food store. The values are the total monthly sales (in
dollars) in each department.
Note: A histogram has no gaps and the horizontal axis represents
the possible values for a numerical variable.
1.18
Explain the difference between a closed-end question and an
open-end question.
Closed-end questions require the respondent to select from a
short list of defined choices.
Open-end questions allow respondents the freedom to respond
with any value, words, or statements of their own choosing.
Note: Demographic questions are questions relating to
respondent’s characteristics, backgrounds, and attributes.
Example: Gender, Marital Status etc...

...sample would be stratified because we want to compare the answers of each of the classes: freshman, sophomores, juniors, and seniors. As a result, we would be able to see what types of harmful effects each class of students are most concerned about.
Biased Questions
1. Question: Since cigarettes are dangerous and can cause serious side effects, such as cancer, do you think that Cigarettes should be prohibited?
A) No, people have the rights to choose whether they are going to smoke Cigarettes
B) No, all people will develop side effects
C) I don’t care if it is prohibited
D) Yes, it could prevent side effects
E) Yes, smoking cause side effects that can lead to death
Explanation: This question is biased because it indicates bad situations as a result of smoking cigarettes, and it will make people think that cigarettes should be prohibited.
2. Question: With the countless killings and violence happened in the United States, do you think people have the rights to own guns?
A) No, the number of violence and killings will increase
B) No, people might misuse the gun
C) I don’t care if people can own guns or not
D) Yes, people use them properly
E) Yes, people can use them to defend themselves
Explanation: This question is biased because it has information that is serious and dangerous to everyone’s life. Therefore, people would have greater chance of saying “No” for their answer....