Ap Human Unit 2 Study Guide

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UNIT 2 Study Guide AP Human Geography Exam
Population:

Demography:
The study of human populations

Over Population:
The definition of over population is having too many people and to little resources

Carrying Capacity:
The largest number of people that the environment of a particular area can support

Doubling Time:
The time it takes for a population to double

Four most over populated regions/Sparsely populated regions in the world (Over populated): East Asia
South Asia
Southeast Asia
Western Europe

East Asia:
One fifth of the world’s people live in east Asia.
The region borders the pacific ocean.
East Asia includes: eastern China, Japan, the Korean Peninsula, and Taiwan.

South Asia:
Another one fifth of the world’s population lives in south Asia. South Asia includes: India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka.

Southeast Asia:
The world’s third largest population cluster is in southeast Asia. A half billion people live in southeast Asia.
The islands are: Indonesia (Java, Sumatra, Borneo), Papua New Guinea, and the Philippines.
Western Europe:
World’s fourth largest population cluster.
Contains one ninth of the world’s population.
Most of Europe’s people live in cities.
This region ranges from Monaco to Russia.

Sparsely Populated Regions:
Dry Lands-
When an area is dry for farming not many people want to live there. These areas cover about 20% of the earth’s land surface.
The largest desert region is the Sahara.
Deserts lack sufficient water to grow crops to feed many people. Wet Lands-
Wet lands are lands that receive high levels of precipitation. These areas are unfavorable for human life.
A combination of rain and heat depletes nutrients from the soil which prevents growing crops. Cold lands-
Cold lands are areas that are covered with ice or have permanently frozen ground. These regions have less precipitation than some deserts.
These polar regions are unsuitable for crops and animals.
High lands-
Few people live at high elevations.
The highest mountains in the world are steep, snowy, and sparsely settled. Some people prefer to live at higher elevations if the temperature and precipitation are uncomfortable at lower elevations.

Population Increase:
Doubling time- The number of years needed to double a population. Total fertility rate- The average number of children a woman will have during her childbearing years. Infant mortality rate- The annual number of deaths of infants under one year old. Life expectancy measures the number of years a newborn will be expected to live.

The current estimated world human population is 6,379,157,361. This figure is extremely precise, however, since there is no complete database on the world's population, and humans are constantly being born (at the rate of about 3 per second) and dying. However, it is clear that the world's population continues to grow, in other words, more people are being born than people dying.

Causes of Population Increase:

Crude birth rate (CBR)- The total number of live births in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society. Ex: a (CBR) of 20 means that for every 1,000 people in a country, 20 babies are born over a one year period.

Crude death rate (CDR)- total number of deaths in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society. The annual number of deaths per 1,000 population.

Natural increase rate (NIR)- the percentage by which a population grows in a year. To compute you subtract CBR from CDR.

Natural Increase:
Natural- means a country’s growth rate excludes migration. About 80 million people are added to the world’s population each year. The historic high was in 1989 with 87 million.
The number of people added each year has dropped slower than the NIR because the population base is much higher now than in the past.

Fertility:
TFR total fertility rate- the average number of children a woman will have throughout her childbearing years (15-49).

Mortality:
Two useful...
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