AP Biology: Summer Summaries

Topics: Allele, DNA, Gene Pages: 7 (2601 words) Published: September 8, 2013
AP Biology
Summer Summaries

There are many differences between proximate and evolutionary causes and explanations on why we are such easy targets for diseases. The proximate explanations are described by its anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry. Evolutionary explanations go into detail on what would happen if we didn’t have the genes that cause us to get sick. Proximate causes look for what genes it is made up of and how it works. Evolutionary causes are why natural selection hasn’t eliminated the genes that cause us harm. For example the author uses the example of how with proximate causes our taste buds detects saltiness, sweetness, sourness, and bitterness then sends it to the brain to analyze it. But with evolutionary causes it detects saltiness, sweetness, sourness, and bitterness then sends it to the brain to help us cope with either our emotional or physical wants or needs. We would want to correct out defects because that would mean getting rid of our problems that prevent us from functioning properly. But even with these defects gone we wouldn’t our defenses to disappear because there are always new diseases around that our body hasn’t come across yet, so our defenses would allow us to face the most unpredictable environments without it being deadly but without our defenses we can get can get sick or even worse. The “outlaw” gene are genes that create their own way of spreading/growing at the expense of person or specie it inhabits. This in return shows the selection of genes acts only to benefit the genes and not the person or species. (Chapter 1)

Natural Selection will change a gene characteristic such as color or size if it will help the survival rate, it all depends on the current in environment that the gene is in. For example IF the tendencies to anxiety, heart failure, nearsightedness, gout, and cancer somehow increased reproductive success than those genes would be selected even if we suffer. Natural selection is also process which biological traits best adapted to their environment and transmit their genetic characteristics by in increasing numbers. If the INDIVIADUAL gene code has characteristics that result in fewer offspring, that gene is gradually eliminated. This shows that natural selection is only out to benefit the groups and do what is better for the body. When Haldane said “No, not for one brother. But I would for two brothers, or eight cousins.” when talking about sacrificing himself he was talking about the numbers. When you have a sibling they share half of each others genes and cousins share one eighth of each other genes. So Haldane was referring to that if would save a group of people who make all up all of his genes so 8 of his cousins or 2 siblings that way his genes still have a chance at reproduction. The Adaptationist Program are methods of investigating the studies of the functional reasons for human attributes. (Chapter 2)

Throughout the chapter the author explains that fever are mostly good for our bodies. It explains that fevers are the bodies way of curing itself in the book it states “fever is unpleasant but useful. It is an adaptation shaped by natural selection specifically to fight infection” but we find having fever is troublesome so we take medicine to get rid of the problem. But the problem with that and having a fever is the medication. The medication can block fever and interfere with the normal mechanisms that regulate the body's response to the infection. In the book it states “Fever will sometimes rise too much and other times not enough”. So when dealing with a fever balance is actually the key. Iron levels are very important when talking abut infections and how to control them, Iron is crucial and scarce resource for bacteria so having to much can help the “bad” bacteria survive longer and multiply but having to little iron can kill of important cells and cause many problems such as diabetes and anemia. The author explains many different types of...
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