Antibiotic Resistance

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The spread of antibiotic resistance is a universal threat to both humans and animals for treatment of microbial infections. The antibiotic resistance is generally not preventable but can still be controlled. Prolonged and repeated use of antibiotic leads to many pathogen becoming resistant to antibiotics. The resistance may be either intrinsic or acquired depending on the condition. Although classically attributed to chromosomal mutations, resistance is most commonly associated with extra-chromosomal elements acquired from other bacteria in the environment. These include different types of mobile DNA segments, such as plasmids, transposons, and integrons. However, intrinsic mechanisms not commonly specified by mobile elements such as efflux pumps that expel multiple kinds of antibiotic are now recognized as major contributors to multidrug resistance in bacteria. Once established, multidrug resistance is a worldwide problem that does not obey international borders and can indiscriminately affect members of all socioeconomic classes. So, the issue of antibiotic resistant is one the most urgent priorities to overcome in the field of Human Health Science.

Keywords: Antibiotic, intrinsic resistance, acquired resistance, mutation, plasmid, intergorns, efflux pump.

It is said that the invention of the antibiotic is the most pioneer achievement of humans against the bacterial infections in the human health science. The first antibiotic appeared in 1928 by Alexander Flaming that is penicillin which kill all surrounding bacteria. And thus, the concept of antibiotic came and it changed the method of infection treatment. The word ‘Antibiotic’ was first termed by the Selman Waksman. But the problem came that is Antibiotic resistance. As a natural response, antibiotic resistance emerges in pathogen populations. Resistance is a condition in which the antibiotic fails to harm the pathogen enough to cure disease. Emergence of resistance often begins with a large pathogen population in which a tiny fraction is naturally resistant to the antibiotic, either through spontaneous changes or through the acquisition of resistance genes from other microbes. Antibiotic treatment kills or halts the growth of the major, susceptible portion of the microbial population (Abraham E.P, 1940). That favors growth of resistant mutants. Prolonged, repeated use of a particular antibiotic leads to the bulk of the pathogen population being composed of resistant cells. Subsequent treatment with that antibiotic does little good. If the resistant organisms spread to other persons, the resulting infections are resistant before treatment. Control of such infection requires a different antibiotic. The development of resistance is accelerated by the mutagenic action of some antibiotics, by the movement of resistance genes from one microbial species to another, and by our excessive, inappropriate use of antibiotics. A wide range of biochemical and physiological mechanisms may be responsible for resistance (Levy et al., 2004). The lack of basic knowledge on these topics is one of the primary reasons that there has been so little significant achievement in the effective prevention and control of resistance development. Most international, national, and local agencies recognize this serious problem. Many resolutions and recommendations have been propounded, and numerous reports have been written, but to no avail: the development of antibiotic resistance is relentless (Davies J. et al.2010). For example, S. aureus was susceptible for many antibiotics including penicillin, before seventy years. But this susceptibility disappeared after few years. Methicillin, which overcame resistance to penicillin. But in 1960, one year after the introduction of methicillin, MRSA (Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus ) was recovered in the United Stat. So, the bacteria resist quickly but their loss of resistance rate is very slow. Multiply resistant...
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